Performance Practices in Classic Piano Music

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Juni 1988



Examines the principles of performing the music of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and their contemporaries as revealed in a variety of historical sources


Foreword by Malcolm Bilson; Preface: About Performance Practices; Acknowledgments; Sources of Figures; Introduction: Using This Book; Abbreviations I. Background for the Study Point of View; Invention and Gradual Acceptance of the Piano; The Musical Need; Cristofori's Invention; The Piano's Ultimate Triumph; Some Influences on Performance; Music and Rhetoric; Empfindsamkeit (Sensibility); Sturm und Drang (Storm and Stress); Haydn and Mozart; Beethoven and the Rhetorical Spirit; Beyond Beethoven; The Musical Score; Changes in the Classic Era; More-Recent Developments; The Composers and Their Pianism; Haydn; Mozart; Clementi; Beethoven; Czerny's Observations on Beethoven Performance II. The Fortepiano circa 1780-1820 General Characteristics of Construction; Expansion of Keyboard Compass and Instrument Size; Changes in Range and Construction; Beethoven's Extension of Range; The Problem of 'Note Restoration'; Tone and Touch; 'Mutations': Hand Stops, Levers, and Pedals; English Versus Viennese Fortepianos; Actions and Sounds; Attempts to Modify the Viennese Action; Four Classic Composers and Their Fortepianos; Composer-Performers and Piano Makers; Haydn, Mozart, and Clementi; Beethoven; Instruments Played for This Study; Viennese Instruments; German Instruments; English Instruments; Personal Observations III. Dynamics and Accentuation Playing Classic Period Music on a Modern Grand Piano; Notation and Interpretation of Dynamic Indications; Introduction; Orientation to Composers' Notation and Unfamiliar Terms; The Scope of Forte and Piano; Concinnity of Dynamics and Form; Filling in the Missing Dynamics; Terraced and Graduated Dynamics; Repeats; Repeats in Sonata-Allegro Form; Inner Repeats in the Minuet or Scherzo Da Capo; Evolution of Calando and Related Terms; Origin: Use by Haydn and Mozart; Clementi's Definition and Usage; Use of Calando by Beethoven, Hummel, and Czerny; Qualitative (Dynamic) Accents; Indications for Accents; Composers' Uses of Accent Indications; Rinforzando; Types of Accentuation; Accentuation in Beethoven's Music; The Annotations to Cramer's Etudes; The Annotations to Etudes IX and XII; Schindler and Beethoven; An Assessment of the Annotations to Cramer's Etudes IV. Use of the Pedals The Damper Pedal: Introduction; Types of Pedaling; Rhythmic Pedaling; Syncopated or Legato Pedaling; Stylistic Use of the Damper Pedal; Contemporary Descriptions and Uses; Planning Appropriate Pedaling; The Development of Pedal Indications and Their Ambiguities; England and France; Germany and Austria; Special Effects by Beethoven, Dussek, Clementi, and Others; Indications that Create Distinctive Timbres; Indications that Highlight Form; The 'Moonlight' Sonata; Adjusting Early Pedal Indications to the Pianoforte; The Una Corda Pedal V. Articulation and Touch Introduction; Nonlegato, Legato, and the Prolonged Touch; Nonlegato, Tenuto, and the Heavy and Light Execution; A Shift toward More Legato; Legato and Legatissimo Touches Described in Tutors; The Prolonged Touch; The Language of the Slur; The Expressivity of Short Slurs; Longer Legato Goups and Slurs; Do All Slurs Indicate Attack and Release?; Dot, Stroke and Wedge VI. Historical Technique and Fingering Point of View; Specific Functions of Technique; Role and Position of the Arm and Hand; Finger Technique; How to Practice; Staccato Touches; Playing the Incise Slur; Repeated Notes, Octaves, and Glissandos; Summary; Increasing Technical Demands; Clementi's Introduction and Gradus; Beethoven's Exercises and Other Fragments; Fingerings by Clementi and Beethoven VII. Ornaments Introduction; Appoggiaturas and Other One-Note Ornaments; Identification; The Short Appoggiatura; The Long Appoggiatura; Afternotes and Grace Notes; Afternote and Anticipatory Performance of Other Short Ornaments; The Trill; Overview; Evolution of the Trill Start; The Trill Start in Works of Haydn, Mozart, and Their Contemporaries; The Trill Start in Works of Beethoven; The Short Trill and the Schneller; The Mordent; The Turn and the 'Quick' Turn; Haydn's Notation of Turns and Mordents; Interpretation of Haydn's Turn 'over the Dot'; Early and Anticipatory Turn Realization; Beethoven's Ambiguous Placement of the Turn Sign; The Inverted Turn; The Trilled Turn; The Double Appoggiatura; The Slide; The Arpeggio; Improvised Ornamentation VIII. 'Mixed Meters' and Dotted Rhythms Mixed Meters; The Theory; Application of the Theory IX. Choice of Tempo Elements in Tempo Choice; Interaction of Meter, Note Values, and Tempo Headings; Practical Results of These Customs; Additional Elements in Tempo Choice; The Basic Tempo Groups; Contemporary Descriptions; Which Was the Slowest Tempo?; Diminutive Terms; Andante and Andantino; The Changing Allegro; The Meaning of Assai; Increasing Individualization of Tempo; The Metronome; Beethoven and the Metronome; Problems Related to Beethoven's Metronomizations; Universal Problems of Metronomization; The 'Hammerklavier' Sonata; Six Metronomizations of Beethoven's Sonatas; The Haslinger Gesamtausgabe; Czerny and Moscheles as Metronomizers; The Gesamtausgabe and Czerny's Other Metronomizations Compared; Tempo Trends in Europe; Czerny's Metronomizations of the 1840s and 1850s; Moscheles's Metronomizations; Comparison with Czerny's Conclusion; Fast and 'Moderate' Minuets; Beethoven's 'Moderate' Minuets: His Metronomizations, Extrapolated Tempos, and Present Practice; Extrapolation of Other Tempos; For Beethoven; For Clementi Appendix A: Theoretical Tempos of Quantz and Turk; Appendix B: Six Sets of Metronomizations for Beethoven's Piano Sonatas X. Flexibility of Rhythm and Tempo Introduction; Rhetorical Accentuation by Agogic Means; Agogic Accentuation of Notes; Rhetorical Rests; The Fermata; Ritardando and Accelerando; Sectional Change of Mood and Tempo; Eighteenth-Centry Tempo Rubato; Freely Shifting Contrametric Rubato; Contrametric Rubato by Uniform Displacement; Contrametric Rubato in the Piano Works of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven; Descriptions of Contrametric Rubato in French Tutors; Tempo Flexibility as Tempo Rubato; Early Evidence of Agogic Rubato; Agogic Rubato in the Piano Works of Haydn, Mozart, and Clementi; Agogic Rubato in the Piano Works of Beethoven's Piano Music XI. Performing Beethoven's Bagatelle Op. 126, No. 5 Use of the Instrument; Dynamics and Accentuation; Slurs, Articulation, and Fingering; Pedaling; Tempo Choice and Tempo Flexibility; Repeat of the Middle Section; Critical Report Notes; Selected Bibliography; Index Plates and Charts Plate I Two Fortepianos Played for This Study; Plate II Excerpt from the Holograph of Beethoven's Sonata Op. 53, Rondo; Plate III Excerpt from the Holograph of Beethoven's Sonata Op. 111/ii; Plate IV Excerpt from the Holograph of Beethoven's Sonata Op. 26/i, Var. 2; Plate V Ludwig van Beethoven, Bagatelle in G major, Op. 126, No. 5, First edition Chart I Apparent Uses of the Damper Pedal or Knee Lever in the Classic Period; Chart II Likely Choice of Touch for Harpsichord, Clavichord, and Fortepiano Music until about 1790; Chart III Comparison of Four Metronomizations of Beethoven's Piano Sonatas


Sandra P. Rosenblum has lectured widely on performance practices at universities, schools of music, and both national and international conferences. The author of numerous journal articles and of editions of sonatas by Scarlatti and Clementi, Ms. Rosenblum holds degrees from Wellesley College and Harvard University. She has been the recipient of fellowships from the American Council of Learned Societies and the Radcliffe Institute. Her present research is on the music of Chopin.


"... is and will remain unsurpassed as 'the study' dealing with performance practice as it pertains to keyboard music of the Classical period." American Music Teacher "Rosenblum's monumental achievement is thorough, objective, balanced, and imaginative, a compelling blend of love and respect for the solo, chamber, and concerto literature she addresses." Journal of Musicological Research "The extent and quality of her research, the depth of her perception, and her musicianship together break new ground in the study of historic performance practice." Early Keyboard Journal "Her attention to details is absolutely scrupulous; no stone unturned, no argument unquestioned or unstated." The Musical Times "Its importance to thoughtful musicians cannot be overstated." Choice " ... thoroughly musicological." Performance Practice Review " ... indispensable ... " New York Times
EAN: 9780253206800
ISBN: 0253206804
Untertitel: Their Principles and Applications. 'Music: Scholarship & Performance'. 53 b&w illus. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Indiana University Press
Erscheinungsdatum: Juni 1988
Seitenanzahl: 544 Seiten
Format: kartoniert
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