Gronlund's Writing Instructional Objectives

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Februar 2008



A unique and classic text, Gronlund's essential "how to" text again provides a step-by-step guide to writing instructional objectives as intended learning outcomes. The author describes how to state objectives in terms of the type of performance students must demonstrate in order to show that they have achieved the goals of the instruction-and illustrates his recommended methods with numerous examples. Gronlund's is a specific procedure for writing objectives-one that can be used to achieve all types of learning outcomes and is especially suited to teaching thinking, performance, and problem-solving skills. The book stresses the important role of objectives in the teaching-learning-assessment process-starting from state content standards-and how objectives can be used to improve student learning. The improvements made to this revision only enhance its usefulness and reputation as the best guide on the market for writing instructional objectives and using them in teaching and assessment.


PART I PREPARING INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES Chapter 1 Focusing on Intended Learning Outcomes Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomes Levels of Goals and Objectives Uses of Instructional Objectives Learning Outcomes and the Instructional Process Stating Instructional Objectives as Intended Learning Outcomes What About Standards? Chapter 2 Obtaining Clear Statements of Instructional Objectives Stating the General Instructional Objectives Selecting the Proper Level of Generality Stating the Specific Learning Outcomes Obtaining a Representative Sample of Specific Learning Outcomes Emphasizing Instructional Intent Keeping the Specific Learning Outcomes Useful for Various Units of Study Using Specific Learning Outcomes in Lesson Planning Making Sure the Specific Learning Outcomes are Relevant Revising the General Objectives as Needed Chapter 3 Using Objectives in Planning for Teaching and Assessment Planning for Instruction Planning for Assessment Chapter 4 Content Standards and Instructional Objectives Nature of Content Standards Need for Instructional Objectives Chapter 5 Considerations in Preparing Instructional Objectives Using a Frame of References as a Guide Other Guides in Preparing Instructional Objectives Considerations in Selecting Instructional Objectives Preparing Instructional Objectives Cooperatively PART II WRITING INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES FOR VARIOUS OUTCOMES Chapter 6 Writing Objectives for Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Outcomes Stating Objectives at the Knowledge, Comprehension, and Application Levels Adapting Statements to Areas of Instruction Adapting Statements to Levels of Instruction The Problem of Limiting Objectivesd to Intellectual Outcomes Chapter 7 Writing Objectives for Higher-Level Thinking Skills Making a Useful List of Outcomes Adapting Statements to Areas of Instruction Adapting Statements to Levels of Instruction Affective Components of Thinking Chapter 8 Writing Objectives for Affective Outcomes Basing Statements on the Taxonomy Categories Basing Statements on Traditional Categories Adapting Statements to Areas and Levels of Instruction Deciding If Affective Outcomes Should be Stated Separately Chapter 9 Writing Performance Objectives for Skills and Products Writing Objectives for Procedure Outcomes Writing Objectives for Product Outcomes Focusing on Both Procedure and Product Outcomes Isolating Performance Skills When Writing Objectives Guidelines for Writing and Using Peformance Objectives for Skills and Products Chapter 10 Writing Performance Objectives for Problem-Solving Projects Stating Objectives for Restricted Problem-Solving Projects Stating Objectives for Extended Problem-Solving Projects Guidelines for Writing and Using Performance Objectives in Problem-Solving Projects PART III USING INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES IN ASSESSMENT Chapter 11 Using Objectives in Achievement Testing Preparing the List of Instructional Objectives Outlining the Content Preparing the Table of Specifications Constructing Relevant Test Items Using a Simple Table for Item Writing Using Detailed Specifications for Item Writing Using Objectives for Interpreting Test Results Chapter 12 Using Objectives in Performance and Affective Assessment Assessing Performance Skills Assessing Affective Outcomes Using Student Portfolios Guidelines for Preparing and Using Assessment Instruments
EAN: 9780131755932
ISBN: 0131755935
Untertitel: Sprache: Englisch.
Erscheinungsdatum: Februar 2008
Seitenanzahl: 155 Seiten
Format: kartoniert
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