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Volcanoes


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April 2010

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

Volcanoes are essential elements in the delicate global balance of elemental forces that govern both the dynamic evolution of the Earth and the nature of Life itself. Without volcanic activity, life as we know it would not exist on our planet. Although beautiful to behold, volcanoes are also potentially destructive, and understanding their nature is critical to prevent major loss of life in the future.
Richly illustrated with over 300 original color photographs and diagrams the book is written in an informal manner, with minimum use of jargon, and relies heavily on first-person, eye-witness accounts of eruptive activity at both "red" (effusive) and "grey" (explosive) volcanoes to illustrate the full spectrum of volcanic processes and their products. Decades of teaching in university classrooms and fieldwork on active volcanoes throughout the world have provided the authors with unique experiences that they have distilled into a highly readable textbook of lasting value. Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion, Suggestions for Further Reading, and a comprehensive list of source references make this work a major resource for further study of volcanology.
Volcanoes maintains three core foci:
* Global perspectives explain volcanoes in terms of their tectonic positions on Earth and their roles in earth history
* Environmental perspectives describe the essential role of volcanism in the moderation of terrestrial climate and atmosphere
* Humanitarian perspectives discuss the major influences of volcanoes on human societies. This latter is especially important as resource scarcities and environmental issues loom over our world, and as increasing numbers of people are threatened by volcanic hazards
Readership
Volcanologists, advanced undergraduate, and graduate students in earth science and related degree courses, and volcano enthusiasts worldwide.
A companion website is also available for this title at www.wiley.com/go/lockwood/volcanoes

Inhaltsverzeichnis

PREFACE.
PART I - INTRODUCTION.
1. Eruptions, Jargon, and History.
A "Grey Volcano" in Eruption - Galunggung - 1982.
A "Red Volcano" in Eruption - Kilauea - 1974.
Some Basic Terminology.
History of Volcanology.
Further Reading.
Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion.
PART II - THE BIG PICTURE.
2. Global Perspectives - Plate Tectonics and Volcanism.
Birth of a Theory.
Volcanoes along Divergent Plate Boundaries.
Volcanoes along Convergent Plate Boundaries.
Intraplate Volcanoes.
Further Reading.
Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion.
3. The Nature of Magma - Where Volcanoes Come From.
Origins of Magma.
The Physics and Chemistry of Melting.
Classification of Magma and Igneous Rocks.
Principal Magma Types.
Magmatic and Volcanic Gases.
Further Reading.
Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion.
4. The Physical Properties of Magma and Why it Erupts.
Magma Temperatures.
Magma Rheology.
Magma Ascent and Emplacement.
"Frozen Magma" - Subvolcanic Intrusives.
Triggers for Volcanic Eruptions - Why Volcanoes Erupt.
Repose Intervals.
Further Reading.
Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion.
PART III - VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS AND THEIR PRODUCTS.
5. Classifying Volcanic Eruptions.
Lacroix Classification System.
Rittman Diagrams.
Geze Classification Diagram.
Walker Classification System.
Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI).
Further Reading.
Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion.
6. Effusive Volcanic Eruptions and Their Products.
Mafic and Intermediate Effusive Eruptions.
Pahoehoe and 0A0a.
Pyroducts.
Pahoehoe Surface Structures.
Lava Flow Internal Structures.
0A0a Surface Structures.
Block Lavas.
Radiocarbon Dating of Prehistoric Lava Flows.
Further Reading.
Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion.
7. An Overview of Explosive Eruptions and Their Products.
Ejecta Classification.
Explosive Eruption Styles and Their Products.
Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs).
Further Reading.
Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion.
8. A Closer Look at Large-scale Explosive Eruptions.
Measuring the Sizes of Plinian Eruptions.
Plinian Eruption Dynamics.
Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs).
Directed Blasts.
"Super-Eruptions".
Further Reading.
Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion.
PART IV - VOLCANIC LANDFORMS AND SETTINGS.
9. Constructional ("Positive") Volcanic Landforms.
Large Igneous Provinces.
Shield Volcanoes.
Composite Volcanoes.
Minor Volcanic Landforms.
Volcano Old Age and Extinction.
Further Reading.
Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion.
10. "Negative" Volcanic Landforms - Craters and Calderas.
Small Craters.
Calderas.
Post-caldera Resurgence.
Caldera Formation Mechanisms.
Caldera Roots - Relationships to Plutonic Rocks.
Volcano-tectonic Depressions.
Further Reading.
Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion.
11. Mass-wasting Processes and Products.
Landslides, Avalanches, and Sector Collapses.
Lahars.
Causes of Lahars.
Lahar Dynamics.
Lahar Destructiveness.
Further Reading.
Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion.
12. Volcanoes Unseen and Far Away.
Submarine and Subglacial Volcanoes - The Meeting of Fire, Water, and Ice.
Extraterrestrial Volcanoes.
Further Reading.
Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion.
PART V - HUMANISTIC VOLCANOLOGY.
13. Volcanoes: Life, Climate, and Human History.
Volcanoes and the Origin of Life.
Volcanoes, Atmosphere, and Climate.
Volcanic Influence on Soil Fertility and Agriculture.
Volcanoes and Human History.
Social Impact of Volcanic Eruptions.
Further Reading.
Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion.
14. Volcanic Hazards and Risk - Monitoring and Mitigation.
Hazards and Risk.
Active, Dormant, and Extinct Volcanoes.
Volcanic Hazards.
Volcanic Risk.
Volcano Monitoring.
Volcanic Crisis Management.
Further Reading.
Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion.
15. Economic Volcanology.
Earth Energy Relationships.
Volcano Energy.
Stored Energy: Geothermal Power.
Volcanoes and Ore Deposits.
Other Useful Volcanic Materials.
Further Reading.
Questions for Thought, Study, and Discussion.
Epilogue: The Future of Volcanology.
References.
Index.
Appendix: List of Prominent World Volcanoes.
Map: Prominent World Volcanoes.

Portrait

Jack Lockwood worked for the US Geological Survey for over 30 years, including 20 years in Hawaii, based at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. He now runs a consulting business, Geohazards Consultants International. Richard (Rick) Hazlett is Coordinator of the Environmental Analysis Program and a member of the Geology Department at Pomona College in Claremont, California, where he teaches an upper-level course in physical volcanology.

Pressestimmen

"This book has been decades in the making, and it was well worth the wait. Volcanoes: Global Perspectives is a great overview of volcanology, an excellent textbook and a very good read. Some books on volcanism have as their central focus what volcanoes are; this one is as interested in how they are experienced, and it is this that gives it an extra freshness and energy. "

The Volcanism Blog, July 2010


"There are an awful lot of good books out there and we can add one more to that list: Volcanoes: Global Perspectives" by Jack Lockwood and Rick Hazlett. I've been able to go through the book and it covers almost everything a volcanophile would want to know about volcanism on Earth and in the solar system."

Dr. Erik Klemetti, Eruptions, May 2010


EAN: 9781405162500
ISBN: 1405162503
Untertitel: Global Perspectives. colour illustrations, colour tables, maps, figures. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Erscheinungsdatum: April 2010
Seitenanzahl: 552 Seiten
Format: kartoniert
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