HUDU

A Synopsis of Biology


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Oktober 2013

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

A Synopsis of Biology summarizes the entire field of biology using a telegraphic style. The discussions are organized around seven themes: form and structure (morphology); functions (physiology); organism and environment (ecology); evolution and heredity (genetics); plant classification (systematic botany); animal classification (systematic zoology); and applications of biology (applied biology).

Comprised of seven sections, this book begins with a detailed account of the morphology of living and non-living things, followed by an assessment of the origin of life. The reader is then introduced to reproduction (vegetative, sexual, and asexual); plant and animal tissues; seeds and seedlings; and metameric segmentation. Subsequent chapters explore matter and energy; organic and inorganic compounds; dermal excretion and thermo-regulation; periodicity and seasonal phenomena; and the life of rivers and lakes. The book also examines parasitism; mating and courtship; natural, artificial, and sexual selection; cultivation of plants; and domestication of animals.

This monograph will be useful to research workers, degree students, and others interested in biology.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1;Front Cover;1 2;A Synopsis of Biology;4 3;Copyright Page;5 4;Table of Contents;12 5;PREFACE;6 6;ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS;8 7;NOTES ON ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN THE TEXT;10 8;ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA;11 9;INTRODUCTION;16 10;Section 1.FORM AND STRUCTURE(MORPHOLOGY);18 10.1;CHAPTER I. LIVING AND NON-LIVING;18 10.2;CHAPTER II. ORIGIN OF LIFE;19 10.2.1;PREYER'S HYPOTHESIS;21 10.2.2;HYPOTHESIS OF COSMOZOA;21 10.3;CHAPTER III. BASIC PATTERNS;21 10.3.1;SEGMENTATION;21 10.3.2;SYMMETRY;24 10.3.3;PHYLLOTAXIS;24 10.4;CHAPTER IV. THE CELL;27 10.4.1;THE NUCLEUS;28 10.4.2;AMITOSIS OR DIRECT DIVISION;29 10.4.3;MITOSIS, KARYOKINESIS, OR INDIRECT DIVISION;29 10.4.4;MEIOSIS OR REDUCTION DIVISION;31 10.4.5;CYTOPLASM;32 10.4.6;GOLGZ APPARATUS;33 10.4.7;MITOCHONDRIA;33 10.4.8;ARCHOPLASM;34 10.4.9;INCLUSIONS;35 10.4.10;CELL-WALL;38 10.4.11;MATRIX;40 10.4.12;CELL COMMUNICATIONS;40 10.5;CHAPTER V. PLANTS AND ANIMALS;41 10.6;CHAPTER VI. VEGETATIVE REPRODUCTION;43 10.6.1;REPAIR AND REGENERATION;43 10.6.2;CUTTINGS;44 10.6.3;GRAFTING;44 10.6.4;EQUAL FISSION;45 10.6.5;POLYEMBRYONY;45 10.6.6;BUDDING;46 10.6.7;FRAGMENTATION;46 10.6.8;GEMMA FORMATION;46 10.6.9;STABILIZATION;47 10.6.10;STORAGE ORGAN FORMATION;47 10.6.11;BULBIL FORMATION;48 10.6.12;VEGETATIVE ENCYSTMENT;48 10.7;CHAPTER VII. ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION;48 10.7.1;RESTING SPORES;49 10.7.2;CONIDIA;49 10.7.3;BASIDIA;49 10.7.4;ZOOSPORANGIA;49 10.7.5;APLANOSPORANGIA;50 10.7.6;AUTOSPORANGIA;50 10.7.7;ASCI;50 10.7.8;SPOROGONIA;51 10.7.9;MULTICELLULAR SPORANGIA;51 10.7.10;PARTHENOGENESIS;51 10.7.11;APOGAMY;52 10.7.12;PAEDOGENESIS;52 10.8;CHAPTER VIII. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION;53 10.8.1;AGAMOGAMY;53 10.8.2;PLASMOGAMY;53 10.8.3;HOLOGAMY;55 10.8.4;ISOGAMY;55 10.8.5;HETEROTHALLISM;55 10.8.6;HETEROGAMY;56 10.8.7;OOGAMY IN ANIMALS;56 10.8.8;ZOIDOGAMY IN PLANTS;59 10.8.9;SIPHONOGAMY IN PLANTS;59 10.8.10;CARPOGONIAL FERTILIZATION;59 10.8.11;ASCOGONIAL FERTILIZATION;60 10.8.12;REDUCED SEXUALITY;60 10.9;CHAPTER IX. ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS;61 10.10;CHAPTER X. DEV
ELOPMENT;63 10.11;CHAPTER XI. PLANT TISSUES;75 10.11.1;TISSUES OF NON-VASCULAR PLANTS;75 10.11.2;TISSUES OF VASCULAR PLANTS;75 10.11.3;MERISTEM;76 10.11.4;MATURE TISSUES OF VASCULAR PLANTS;79 10.12;CHAPTER XII. THE ALGA;83 10.12.1;CHLAMYDOMONAS;83 10.12.2;VOLVOX;84 10.12.3;CHLOROCOCCUM;88 10.12.4;CHLORELLA;88 10.12.5;ULOTHRIX;89 10.12.6;COLEOCHÆTE;90 10.12.7;PLEUBOCOCCUS;91 10.12.8;VAUCHERIA;92 10.12.9;CLADOPHORA;94 10.12.10;OEDOGONIUM;94 10.12.11;SPIROGYRA;96 10.12.12;FUCUS;98 10.13;CHAPTER XIII. THE LICHEN;100 10.13.1;XANTHORIA;101 10.14;CHAPTER XIV. THE FUNGUS;102 10.14.1;BACILLUS;103 10.14.2;SACCHAROMYCES;104 10.14.3;MUCOR;105 10.14.4;PYTHIUM;107 10.14.5;ERYSIPHE;108 10.14.6;ASPERGILLUS ( = EUROTIUM);109 10.14.7;PSALLIOTA;110 10.15;CHAPTER XV. THE LIVERWORT AND THE MOSS;113 10.15.1;THE LIVERWORT;113 10.15.2;THE MOSS;118 10.16;CHAPTER XVI. THE FERN AND THE CLUB-MOSS;126 10.16.1;THE FERN;126 10.16.2;SELAGINELLA;137 10.16.3;LYCOPODIUM;140 10.17;CHAPTER XVII. THE CONIFER AND THE CYCAD;142 10.17.1;PINUS;142 10.17.2;CYCAS;146 10.18;CHAPTER XVIII. THE FLOWERING PLANT;148 10.19;CHAPTER XIX. THE ROOT;154 10.20;CHAPTER XX. THE STEM;159 10.21;CHAPTER XXI. THE LEAF;169 10.22;CHAPTER XXII. THE FLOWER;180 10.23;CHAPTER XXIII. THE FRUIT;199 10.24;CHAPTER XXIV. SEEDS AND SEEDLINGS;205 10.25;CHAPTER XXV. THE PROTOZOAN;211 10.25.1;AMCEBA;211 10.25.2;EUGLENA;212 10.25.3;PARAMCIUM;214 10.25.4;MONOCYSTIS;216 10.26;CHAPTER XXVI. ANIMAL TISSUES;218 10.26.1;EPITHELIA;218 10.26.2;SIMPLE EPITHELIA;219 10.26.3;COMPOUND EPITHELIA;220 10.26.4;GLANDULAR EPITHELIA;221 10.26.5;CONNECTIVE TISSUES;221 10.26.6;SIMPLE CONNECTIVE TISSUES;221 10.26.7;LIQUID TISSUES;226 10.26.8;SCLEROUS OR SKELETAL TISSUES;229 10.26.9;MUSCULAR TISSUES;232 10.26.10;STRIPED MUSCLE;233 10.26.11;PLAIN MUSCLE;234 10.26.12;CARDIAC MUSCLE;235 10.26.13;NERVOUS TISSUE;235 10.26.14;NEUROGLIA;236 10.26.15;WHITE MATTER;237 10.26.16;GREY MATTER;237 10.27;CHAPTER XXVII. THE CLENTERATE;239 10.27.1;HYDRA;239 10.27.2;OBELIA;243 10.28
;CHAPTER XXVIII. ANIMAL ORGANS;245 10.28.1;SKELETAL OR OSSEOUS SYSTEM;245 10.28.2;ARTICULAR SYSTEM;247 10.28.3;MUSCULAR SYSTEM;247 10.28.4;NERVOUS SYSTEM;249 10.28.5;SENSORY SYSTEM;250 10.28.6;DERMAL SYSTEM;262 10.28.7;ALIMENTARY SYSTEM;263 10.28.8;RESPIRATORY SYSTEM;266 10.28.9;CIRCULATORY SYSTEM;266 10.28.10;GLANDULAR SYSTEM;269 10.28.11;EXCRETORY OR URINARY SYSTEM;271 10.28.12;REPRODUCTIVE OR GENITAL SYSTEM;275 10.29;CHAPTER XXIX. THE ECHINODERM;275 10.29.1;ASTERIAS;276 10.30;CHAPTER XXX. WORMS;279 10.30.1;PLANARIA;279 10.30.2;LUMBRICUS;281 10.31;CHAPTER XXXI. METAMERIC SEGMENTATION;285 10.32;CHAPTER XXXII. PLANT-LIKE ANIMALS;286 10.32.1;ASCIDIA;286 10.33;CHAPTER XXXIII. MOLLUSCS;288 10.33.1;ANODONTA;289 10.33.2;HELIX;292 10.34;CHAPTER XXXIV. AMPHIOXUS;294 10.35;CHAPTER XXXV. ARTHROPODS;302 10.35.1;ASTACUS;302 10.35.2;PERIPLANETA;309 10.36;CHAPTER XXXVIC. YCLOSTOMES;316 10.36.1;PETROMYZON;316 10.37;CHAPTER XXXVII. THE DOGFISH;320 10.38;CHAPTER XXXVIII. THE BONY FISH;334 10.38.1;GADUS;334 10.39;CHAPTER XXXIX. THE AMPHIBIAN;339 10.39.1;RANA;340 10.39.2;SALAMANDRA;356 10.40;CHAPTER XL. THE REPTILE;356 10.40.1;LACERTA;357 10.41;CHAPTER XLI. THE BIRD;359 10.41.1;COLUMBA;359 10.42;CHAPTER XLII. THE MAMMAL;371 10.42.1;ORYCTOLAGUS;372 10.42.2;RATTUS;397 10.43;CHAPTER XLIII. HUMANITY;399 11;Section II.PHYSIOLOGY;406 11.1;CHAPTER XLIV. MATTER AND ENERGY;406 11.2;CHAPTER XLV. CHEMICAL ELEMENTS;408 11.3;CHAPTER XLVII. NORGANIC COMPOUNDS;412 11.4;CHAPTER XLVII. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS;414 11.4.1;CARBOHYDRATES;414 11.4.2;MONOSACCHARIDES;415 11.4.3;DISACCHARIDES;415 11.4.4;POLYSACCHARIDES;415 11.4.5;GLYCOSIDES;416 11.4.6;LIPIDES;416 11.4.7;PROTEINS;417 11.5;CHAPTER XLVIII. SOLUTIONS;418 11.6;CHAPTER XLIX. THE COLLOIDAL STATE;421 11.7;CHAPTER L. ENZYMES;423 11.8;CHAPTER LI. DIGESTION;424 11.9;CHAPTER LII. ABSORPTION;425 11.10;CHAPTER LIIII. VITAMINS;428 11.11;CHAPTER LIV. CIRCULATION;432 11.11.1;CELL CIRCULATION;432 11.11.2;CIRCULATION IN LAND PLANTS;432 11.11.3;CILIARY CURRENTS;434 1
1.11.4;GASTRO-VASCULAR SYSTEM;434 11.11.5;WATER-VASCULAR SYSTEM;434 11.11.6;PSEUDOCCELOM;435 11.11.7;LACUNAR VASCULAR SYSTEM;435 11.11.8;HÆMOCLE;435 11.11.9;CLOSED VASCULAR SYSTEM;435 11.11.10;LYMPHATIC SYSTEM;436 11.11.11;THIRD CIRCULATION;436 11.12;CHAPTER LV. ASSIMILATION;436 11.12.1;CHEMOSYNTHESIS;436 11.12.2;PHOTOSYNTHESIS;437 11.12.3;HETEROTROPHIC ASSIMILATION;439 11.13;CHAPTER LVI. EXTERNAL RESPIRATION;439 11.14;CHAPTER LVIII. NTERNAL RESPIRATION;441 11.14.1;USE OF ENERGY;442 11.14.2;AMOUNT OF ENERGY;444 11.14.3;RESPIRATORY QUOTIENT;444 11.15;CHAPTER LVIII. FERMENTATION;445 11.16;CHAPTER LIX. EXCRETION;448 11.17;CHAPTER LX. DERMAL EXCRETION AND THERMO-REGULATION;450 11.18;CHAPTER LXI. GROWTH;451 11.19;CHAPTER LXII. REPRODUCTION;452 11.20;CHAPTER LXIII. ENDOCRINE CONTROL;453 11.21;CHAPTER LXIV. EXCITATION;459 11.22;CHAPTER LXV. CONDUCTION;461 11.23;CHAPTER LXVI. RESPONSE;466 12;Section III.ORGANISM AND ENVIRONMENT(ECOLOGY);471 12.1;CHAPTER LXVII. THE COSMIC BACKGROUND;471 12.2;CHAPTER LXVIII. THE INORGANIC ENVIRONMENT;472 12.2.1;THE ATMOSPHERE;472 12.2.2;THE HYDROSPHERE;473 12.2.3;LITHOSPHERE;475 12.2.4;BARYSPHERE;477 12.2.5;BIOSPHERE;477 12.3;CHAPTER LXIX. DISTRIBUTION IN TIME: EPOCHS;478 12.3.1;PAMPALOZOIC or EOZOIC;481 12.3.2;PALÆOZOIC;481 12.3.3;MESOZOIC;482 12.3.4;CAINOZOIC;483 12.3.5;PSYCHOZOIC;484 12.4;CHAPTER LXX. PERIODICITY AND SEASONAL PHENOMENA;485 12.5;CHAPTER LXXI. DISTRIBUTION IN SPACE: FLORAS AND FAUNAS;490 12.6;CHAPTER LXXII. DEEP SEA LIFE;497 12.7;CHAPTER LXXIII. LIFE OF THE SHALLOW SEAS;501 12.8;CHAPTER LXXIV. BETWEEN THE TIDES;502 12.9;CHAPTER LXXV. LIFE OF RIVERS AND LAKES;504 12.10;CHAPTER LXXVI. LIFE OF PONDS;507 12.11;CHAPTER LXXVII. THE SOIL;511 12.11.1;SOLID PARTICLES;512 12.11.2;SOIL WATER;513 12.11.3;SOIL AIR;513 12.11.4;LIFE IN THE SOIL;513 12.12;CHAPTER LXXVIII. HIDDEN AND BURROWING ORGANISMS;515 12.13;CHAPTER LXXIX. HERBS, SHRUBS, AND TREES;517 12.14;CHAPTER LXXX. WET AND DRY HABITATS;521 12.15;CHAPTER LXXXI. LAND ANIMALS;527 12.
16;CHAPTER LXXXII. EPIPHYTES AND CLIMBERS;529 12.17;CHAPTER LXXXIII. LIFE IN THE AIR;532 12.18;CHAPTER LXXXIV. SAPROPHYTISM;534 12.19;CHAPTER LXXXV. PARASITISM;535 12.19.1;MODIFICATION OF PARASITES;535 12.19.2;KINDS OF PARASITES;536 12.19.3;EFFECT OF PARASITE ON HOST;538 12.19.4;IMMUNITY;540 12.19.5;GROUPS TO WHICH PARASITES BELONG;541 12.19.6;DISTRIBUTION OF PARASITES;542 12.19.7;THE GERM THEORY OF DISEASE;543 12.20;CHAPTER LXXXVI. PARASITIC MITES AND TICKS;544 12.21;CHAPTER LXXXVII. PARASITIC INSECTS;544 12.22;CHAPTER LXXXVIII. PARASITIC WORMS;546 12.22.1;FLUKES;546 12.22.2;CESTODES;549 12.22.3;PARASITIC NEMATODES;551 12.23;CHAPTER LXXXIX. PARASITIC PROTOZOA;553 12.24;CHAPTER XC. PARASITIC FUNGI;557 12.25;CHAPTER XCI. DISEASE BACTERIA AND VIRUSES;558 12.26;CHAPTER XCII. PARASITIC FLOWERING PLANTS;562 12.27;CHAPTER XCIIII. INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS;563 12.28;CHAPTER XCIV. PESTS AND ENEMIES;565 12.29;CHAPTER XCV. FOOD AND FEEDING;574 12.30;CHAPTER XCVI. MATING AND COURTSHIP;583 12.31;CHAPTER XCVII. CARE OF THE YOUNG;590 12.32;CHAPTER XCVIII. COMMUNITIES OF INDIVIDUALS OF THE SAME SPECIES;594 12.33;CHAPTER XCIX. COMMUNITIES OF INDIVIDUALS OF DIFFERENT SPECIES;603 13;Section IV.EVOLUTION AND HEREDITY (GENETICS);605 13.1;CHAPTER C. THE SPECIES;605 13.2;CHAPTER CI. THE NATURAL SYSTEM;605 13.3;CHAPTER CII. THE EVOLUTION THEORY;607 13.4;CHAPTER CIII. EVIDENCE FROM COMPARATIVE ANATOMY;611 13.5;CHAPTER CIV. EVIDENCE FROM EMBRYOLOGY;616 13.6;CHAPTER CV. EVIDENCE FROM FOSSILS;619 13.6.1;EVOLUTION OF VERTEBRATES;620 13.6.2;EVOLUTION OF ARTHROPODS;620 13.6.3;EVOLUTION OF PLANTS;620 13.6.4;EVOLUTION OF HORSES;621 13.6.5;EVOLUTION OF CAMELS;622 13.6.6;EVOLUTION OF ELEPHANTS;623 13.6.7;EVOLUTION OF DEER;624 13.6.8;EVOLUTION OF MAN;624 13.6.9;EVOLUTION OF BIRDS;624 13.6.10;EVOLUTION OF DINOSAURS;624 13.6.11;EVOLUTION OF SNAILS;624 13.6.12;EVOLUTION OF AMMONITES;624 13.7;CHAPTER CVI. EVIDENCE FROM PHYSIOLOGY;625 13.8;CHAPTER CVII. EVIDENCE FROM DISTRIBUTION;626 13.9;CHAPTER CVIII. NATURA
L SELECTION;628 13.10;CHAPTER CIX. ARTIFICIAL SELECTION;629 13.11;CHAPTER CX. SEXUAL SELECTION;630 13.12;CHAPTER CXII. INHERITANCE OF ACQUIRED CHARACTERS;631 13.13;CHAPTER CXII. VARIATION;633 13.14;CHAPTER CXIII. MENDELISM;642 13.15;CHAPTER CXIV. NEO-MENDELISM;645 13.16;CHAPTER CXV. THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF HEREDITY;647 13.17;CHAPTER CXVI. THE DETERMINATION OF SEX;650 13.18;CHAPTER CXVII. MUTATION;651 13.19;CHAPTER CXVIII. ORTHOGENESIS;652 14;Section V.PLANT CLASSIFICATION (SYSTEMATIC BOTANY);654 14.1;CHAPTER CXIX. ALGÆ;654 14.1.1;CYANOPHYCEÆ;655 14.1.2;CRYPTOPHYCEÆ;656 14.1.3;DESMOKONTÆ;656 14.1.4;DINOKONTÆ = DINOPHYCEÆ;656 14.1.5;CHRYSOPHYCEÆ;657 14.1.6;BACILLARIOPHYCEÆ;658 14.1.7;HETEROKONTÆ = XANTHOPHYCEÆ;659 14.1.8;ISOKONTÆ = CHLOROPYCEÆ;660 14.1.9;CONJUGATE = AKONTJE = ZYGOPHYCEÆ;663 14.1.10;CHARAPHYCEÆ;664 14.1.11;PHÆOPHYCEÆ;664 14.1.12;RHODOPHYCEJE;667 14.2;CHAPTER CXX. LICHENES;669 14.2.1;GLAUCOPHYTA;669 14.2.2;DEUTEROLICHENES;669 14.2.3;PHYCOLICHENES;670 14.2.4;BRYOLICHENES;670 14.2.5;ASCOLICHENES;670 14.2.6;PYRENOCARPXNEÆ;670 14.2.7;CONIOCARPINEÆ;670 14.2.8;GRAPHIDINEÆ;670 14.2.9;CYCLOCARPINEÆ;670 14.2.10;CYANOPHILA;671 14.2.11;POLARILOCULARES;671 14.2.12;BASIDIOLICHENES;671 14.2.13;HYMENOLICHENES;671 14.2.14;GASTEROLICHENS;671 14.3;CHAPTER CXXI. BACTERIA AND FUNGI;672 14.3.1;FUNGI;673 14.3.2;ARCHIMYCETES;674 14.3.3;DEUTEROMYCETES;675 14.3.4;PHYCOMYCETES;676 14.3.5;ZYGOMYCETES;676 14.3.6;OOMYCETES;676 14.3.7;ASCOMYCETES;677 14.3.8;PLECTOMYCETES;677 14.3.9;DISCOMYCETES;677 14.3.10;PYRENOMYCETES;678 14.3.11;BASIDIOMYCETES;679 14.3.12;PHRAGMOBASIDIOMYCETES;679 14.3.13;HYMENOMYCETES;680 14.3.14;GASTEROMYCETES;680 14.4;CHAPTER CXXII. BRYOPHYTA;681 14.4.1;RXCCXADINEÆ;682 14.4.2;MARCHANTIINEÆ;682 14.4.3;JUNGERMANNIINÆ ANAKROGYNÆ;682 14.4.4;JUNGERMANNIINEÆ AKROGYNÆ;682 14.4.5;ANTHOCEROTINÆ;683 14.4.6;SPHAGNINÆ;683 14.4.7;ANDREiEINEÆ;683 14.4.8;BUXBAUMIINEÆ;683 14.4.9;TETRAPHIDINEÆ;683 14.4.10;BRYINEÆ HAPLOLEPIDEÆ;683 14.4.11;BRYINEÆ DIPLOLEPIDÆ;684 14.4.12;POLYTRICH
INEÆ;684 14.5;CHAPTER CXXIII. PTERIDOPHYTA;684 14.5.1;PSILOPHYTINEÆ;685 14.5.2;LYCOPODIINEÆ;685 14.5.3;PSILOTINEÆ;685 14.5.4;SELAGINELLINEÆ;686 14.5.5;LEPIDOPHYTINEÆ;686 14.5.6;ARTHROPHYTA;686 14.5.7;ISOETINEÆ;687 14.5.8;OPHIOGLOSSINEÆ;687 14.5.9;PRIMOFILICINEÆ;687 14.5.10;FILICINEÆ EUSPORANGIATÆ;688 14.5.11;FILICINEÆ LEPTOSPORANGIATÆ;688 14.5.12;HYDROPTERIDÆ;689 14.6;CHAPTER CXXIV. GYMNOSPERMIA;689 14.6.1;TAXODIINEÆ;690 14.6.2;ARAUCARIINEÆ;690 14.6.3;ABIETINEÆ;690 14.6.4;CUPRESSINEÆ;691 14.6.5;TAXINEÆ;691 14.6.6;GNETINEÆ;692 14.6.7;CORDAITINEÆ;693 14.6.8;GINKGOINEÆ;693 14.6.9;PTERIDOSPERMÆ;693 14.6.10;CYCADINEÆ;693 14.6.11;BENNETTITINEÆ;693 14.6.12;CAYTONIINEÆ;694 14.7;CHAPTER CXXV. GLUMIFLOBÆ;694 14.7.1;GRAMINEÆ;695 14.7.2;MAYDEÆ;695 14.7.3;ANDROPOGONEÆ;695 14.7.4;PANICEÆ;695 14.7.5;ORYZEÆ;695 14.7.6;PHALARIDEÆ;695 14.7.7;AGROSTIDEÆ;695 14.7.8;AVENEÆ;696 14.7.9;CHLORIDEÆ;696 14.7.10;FESTUCEÆ;696 14.7.11;HORDEEÆ;696 14.7.12;BAMBUSEÆ;696 14.7.13;CYPERACEÆ;696 14.8;CHAPTER CXXVI. LILIIFLORÆ;697 14.8.1;ALISMACEÆ;697 14.8.2;BUTOMACEÆ;697 14.8.3;BROMELIACEÆ;697 14.8.4;COMMELINACEÆ;697 14.8.5;ENANTIOBLASTÆ;697 14.8.6;LILIACEÆ;698 14.8.7;JUNCACEÆ;699 14.8.8;DIOSCOREACEÆ;699 14.8.9;AMARYLLIDACEÆ;700 14.8.10;IRIDACEÆ;700 14.8.11;SCITAMINEÆ;700 14.8.12;MICROSPERMÆ;701 14.9;CHAPTER CXXVII. SPADICIFLORÆ;701 14.9.1;POTAMOGETONACEÆ;702 14.9.2;NAJADACEÆ;702 14.9.3;HYDROCHARITACEÆ;702 14.9.4;JUNCAGXNACEÆ;702 14.9.5;TYPHACEÆ;702 14.9.6;PANDANACEÆ;703 14.9.7;SPARGANIACEÆ;703 14.9.8;TRIURIDACEÆ;703 14.9.9;PALMÆ;703 14.9.10;CYCLANTHACEÆ;704 14.9.11;ARACEÆ;704 14.9.12;LEMNACEÆ;704 14.10;CHAPTER CXXVII. IAPETALÆ;704 14.10.1;VERTICILLATÆ;705 14.10.2;PIPERALES;705 14.10.3;SALICALES;705 14.10.4;MYRICALES;706 14.10.5;JUGLANDALES;706 14.10.6;FAGALES;706 14.10.7;URTICALES;707 14.10.8;PODOSTEMALES;708 14.10.9;PBOTEALES;708 14.10.10;HYSTEROPHYTA;708 14.10.11;POLYGONALES;708 14.10.12;CENTROSPERMÆ;709 14.11;CHAPTER CXXIX. POLYPETALÆ;709 14.11.1;RANALES = POLYCARPICÆ;710 14.11.2;RHADALES;714 14.11
.3;SARRACENIALES;718 14.11.4;ROSALES;718 14.11.5;GERANXAX.ES;722 14.11.6;SAPINDALES;724 14.11.7;RHAMNALES;725 14.11.8;MALVALES;725 14.11.9;PARIETALES;725 14.11.10;OPUNTIALES;727 14.11.11;MYRTIFLORÆ;727 14.11.12;UMBELLIFLORÆ;728 14.12;CHAPTER CXXX. SYMPETALÆ;730 14.12.1;ERICALES;730 14.12.2;PRIMULALES;731 14.12.3;PLUMBAGINALES;731 14.12.4;EBENALES;732 14.12.5;CONTORTÆ;732 14.12.6;TUBXFLORÆ;733 14.12.7;PLANTAGINALES;737 14.12.8;RUBIALES;738 14.12.9;CUCURBITALES;739 14.12.10;CAMPANULATÆ;740 14.12.11;COMPOSITÆ;740 15;Section VI.ANIMAL CLASSIFICATION (SYSTEMATIC ZOOLOGY);743 15.1;CHAPTER CXXXI. PROTOZOA;744 15.1.1;RHIZOPODA PROTEOMYXA;744 15.1.2;..O.....;745 15.1.3;FORAMINIFERA (= RETICULARIA);745 15.1.4;HELIOZOA;747 15.1.5;RADIOLARIA;747 15.1.6;FLAGELLATA ( = MASTIGOPHORA);748 15.1.7;PHYTOFLAGELLATA = CHROMOFLAGELLATA;749 15.1.8;CHOANOFLAGELLATA;749 15.1.9;LISSOFLAGELLATA;750 15.1.10;CILIOPHORA;751 15.1.11;CILIATA;751 15.1.12;ACINETARIA= SUCTORIA = TENTACULIFERA;754 15.1.13;SPOROZOA;754 15.1.14;MYCETOZOA OF ZOOLOGISTS = MYXOMYCETES OF BOTANISTS;756 15.2;CHAPTER CXXXII. TWO-LAYERED ANIMALS;757 15.2.1;MESOZOA;757 15.2.2;PARAZOA (Sponges or Porifera);758 15.2.3;CALCAREA;758 15.2.4;HEXACTINELLIDA;758 15.2.5;MONAXONIDA;759 15.2.6;TETRACTINELLIDA;759 15.2.7;KERATOSA;759 15.2.8;MYXOSPONGIDA;759 15.2.9;CCELENTERATA = CNIDARIA (Sea Nettles);759 15.2.10;HYDROZOA;760 15.2.11;SCYPHOZOA;762 15.2.12;ANTHOZOA=ACTINOZOA;764 15.2.13;OCTOCORALLIA=ALCYONARIA;764 15.2.14;HEXACORALLIA=ZOANTHARIA;765 15.2.15;CTENOPHORA;766 15.3;CHAPTER CXXXIII. ECHINODERMATA;767 15.3.1;PELMATOZOA;769 15.3.2;CRINOIDEA;770 15.3.3;ELEUTHEROZOA;770 15.3.4;ASTEROIDEA;770 15.3.5;OPHIUROIDEA;771 15.3.6;ECHINOIDEA;772 15.3.7;HOLOTHUROIDEA;773 15.4;CHAPTER CXXXIV. VERMES=HELMINTHES (Worms);774 15.4.1;PLATYHELMINTHES;775 15.4.2;TURBELLARIA;775 15.4.3;TREMATODA;776 15.4.4;CESTODA;777 15.4.5;NEMERTEA=NEHHERTINEA;778 15.4.6;NEMATODA;778 15.4.7;GORDIACEA;779 15.4.8;ACANTHOCEPHALA;780 15.4.9;ANNELIDA;780 15.4.10;ARCHIANNEL
IDA;781 15.4.11;POLYCHÆTA;781 15.4.12;OLIGOCHÆTA;783 15.4.13;HIRUDINEA;784 15.4.14;GEPHYREA;785 15.5;CHAPTER CXXXV. MOLLUSCOIDEA;786 15.5.1;ROTIFERA;787 15.5.2;GASTROTRICHA;789 15.5.3;KINORHYNCHA=ECHINODERA;789 15.5.4;KAMPTOZOA = CALYSSOZOA;789 15.5.5;POLYZOA = BRYOZOA;789 15.5.6;BRACHIOPODA;791 15.5.7;PHORONIDA;792 15.5.8;HEMICHORDATA;793 15.5.9;GRAPTOLITHIDA;795 15.5.10;UROCHORDATA = TUNICATA;795 15.5.11;CEPHALOCHORDATA;798 15.5.12;CHÆTOGNATHA;798 15.6;CHAPTER CXXXVI. MOLLUSCA;799 15.6.1;SOLENOGASTERES;800 15.6.2;POLYPLACOPHORA = LORICATA;800 15.6.3;MONOPLACOPHORA;800 15.6.4;SCAPHOPODA;800 15.6.5;ASPIDOBRANCHIA;801 15.6.6;PECTINIBRANCHIA;801 15.6.7;OPISTHOBRANCHIA;803 15.6.8;PULMONATA;804 15.6.9;CEPHALOPODA;804 15.6.10;PROTOBRANCHIA;805 15.6.11;FILIBRANCHIA;806 15.6.12;EULAMELLIBRANCHIA;807 15.6.13;SEPTIBRANCHIA;808 15.7;CHAPTER CXXXVII. ARTHROPODA;809 15.7.1;TARDIGRADA;810 15.7.2;ONYCHOPHORA;810 15.7.3;PENTASTOMIDA = LINGUATULIDA;811 15.7.4;CHILOPODA = OPISTHOGONEATA;812 15.7.5;DIPLOPODA = PROGONEATA;812 15.7.6;INSECTA = HEXAPODA;813 15.7.7;CRUSTACEA;819 15.7.8;ARACHNIDA;824 15.7.9;EURYPTERIDA=GIGANTOSTRACA;826 15.7.10;XIPHOSURA;827 15.7.11;PANTOPODA;827 15.7.12;TRILOBITA;827 15.8;CHAPTER CXXXVIII. PISCES;828 15.8.1;AGNATHA;828 15.8.2;APHETOHYOIDEA=PLACODERMI;830 15.8.3;CHONDRICHTHYES=ELASMOBRANCHII= SELACHII;831 15.8.4;CROSSOPTERYGII = CHOANICHTHYES;832 15.8.5;PALÆOPTERYGII;834 15.8.6;HOLOSTEI;834 15.8.7;APODES;835 15.8.8;ISOSPONDYLI;835 15.8.9;OSTARIOPHYSI;836 15.8.10;MESICHTHYES;836 15.8.11;ACANTHOPTERYGII;838 15.8.12;ANACANTHINI;840 15.9;CHAPTER CXXXIX. AMPHIBIA;841 15.9.1;ICHTHYOSTEGALIA;843 15.9.2;EMBOLOMERI;843 15.9.3;RHACHITOMI;843 15.9.4;STEREOSPONDYLI;843 15.9.5;PROSAURIA=SEYMOURIAMORPHA;843 15.9.6;PHYLLOSPONDYLI = BRANCHIOS AURIA;843 15.9.7;ADELOSPONDYLI=MICROSAURIA;844 15.9.8;NECTRIDIA;844 15.9.9;AISTOPODA;844 15.9.10;GYMNOPHIONA=CÆCILIA;844 15.9.11;URODELA;844 15.9.12;ANURA;845 15.10;CHAPTER CXL. REPTILIA;846 15.10.1;COTYLOSAURIA;850 15.10.2;CHELONIA
;850 15.10.3;RHYNCHOCEPHALIA;851 15.10.4;LACERTILIA;852 15.10.5;PYTHONOMORPHA;853 15.10.6;RHIPTOGLOSSA=CHAMÆLEONTES;854 15.10.7;OPHIDIA;854 15.10.8;EMYDOSAURIA;855 15.10.9;DRACONES;856 15.10.10;ICHTHYOPTERYGIA;857 15.10.11;SAUROPTERYGIA=SYNAPTOSAURIA;857 15.10.12;THEROMORPHA=SYNAPSIDA;858 15.11;CHAPTER CXLI. AVES;859 15.11.1;ODONTORNITHES;860 15.11.2;RATITÆ;861 15.11.3;GALLINJE = RASORES;862 15.11.4;COLUMBÆ = GYRANTES;863 15.11.5;GRALLATORES;863 15.11.6;PALMIPEDES = NATATORES;865 15.11.7;ACCIPITRES;867 15.11.8;STRIGES;868 15.11.9;PSITTACI = PREHENSORES;868 15.11.10;SCANSORES;868 15.11.11;PASSERES;869 15.11.12;STRISORES;870 15.12;CHAPTER CXLII. MAMMALIA;871 15.12.1;PROTOTHERIA;874 15.12.2;MARSUPIALIA;874 15.12.3;INSECTIVORA;876 15.12.4;EDENTATA;876 15.12.5;RODENTIA;878 15.12.6;CHIROPTERA;879 15.12.7;CETACEA;880 15.12.8;SUBUNGULATA;881 15.12.9;PERISSODACTYLA;884 15.12.10;ARTIODACTYLA;885 15.12.11;CARNIVORA;887 15.12.12;PRIMATES;888 16;Section VIIAPPLICATIONS OF BIOLOGY: APPLIED BIOLOGY;892 16.1;CHAPTER CXLIII. FOODS;892 16.1.1;1. Cereals;893 16.1.2;2. Pulses;894 16.1.3;3. Nuts and Seeds;894 16.1.4;4. Vegetables;894 16.1.5;5. Fleshy Fruits;895 16.1.6;6. Saccharine Substances;896 16.1.7;7. Animal-foods;897 16.1.8;8. Dairy products;905 16.1.9;9. Tisanes;906 16.1.10;10. Waters;906 16.1.11;11. Fermented liquors;907 16.1.12;12. Condiments and spices;907 16.2;CHAPTER CXLIV. DRUGS;908 16.3;CHAPTER CXLV. OTHER MEDICAL APPLICATIONS;921 16.4;CHAPTER CXLVIC. ULTIVATION OF PLANTS;924 16.4.1;IMPROVEMENT OF THE SOIL;927 16.4.2;PROPAGATION OF PLANTS;928 16.4.3;ERADICATION OF WEEDS;929 16.5;CHAPTER CXLVII. DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS;931 16.6;CHAPTER CXLVIII. FISHING AND FISHERIES;936 16.7;CHAPTER CXLIX. TEXTILES;937 16.7.1;MINERAL FIBRES;938 16.7.2;VEGETABLE FIBRES;938 16.7.3;ANIMAL FIBRES;940 16.7.4;PROCESSED FIBRES;941 16.7.5;SYNTHETIC FIBRES;942 16.7.6;YARNS;942 16.7.7;FABRICS;942 16.7.8;FINISHED FIBRES, YARNS, AND FABRICS;943 16.7.9;NEEDLEWORK;943 16.7.10;APPAREL;943 16.7.11;FURNISH
INGS;944 16.8;CHAPTER CL. OTHER PLANT PRODUCTS;944 16.9;CHAPTER CLI. HUNTING AND HAWKING;952 16.10;CHAPTER CLII. OTHER ANIMAL PRODUCTS;953 16.11;CHAPTER CLIII. VETERINARY APPLICATIONS;958 16.12;CHAPTER CLIV. PERFUMERY AND COSMETICS;961 17;Section VII.THE TECHNIQUE OF BIOLOGY: BIOTECHNOLOGY;963 17.1;CHAPTER CLV. CULTURES;963 17.2;CHAPTER CLVI. BREEDING;966 17.3;CHAPTER CLVII. PRESERVATION;968 17.4;CHAPTER CLVIII. DISSECTION;970 17.5;CHAPTER CLIX. MICROSCOPY;972 17.6;CHAPTER CLX. FINE STRUCTURE INVESTIGATION;978 17.7;CHAPTER CLXI. FIXATION;979 17.8;CHAPTER CLXII. STAINING;983 17.9;CHAPTER CLXIII. MICRO-MANIPULATION;986 17.10;CHAPTER CLXIV. MICROTOMY;990 18;INDEX;993


EAN: 9781483225326
Untertitel: 200:Adobe eBook. Sprache: Englisch. Dateigröße in MByte: 143.
Verlag: Elsevier Science
Erscheinungsdatum: Oktober 2013
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