Gas Sweetening and Processing Field Manual

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Oktober 2011



Although the processing of natural gas is in many respects less complicated than the processing and refining of crude oil, it is equally as necessary before its use by end users. The actual process used to separate oil from natural gas, as well as the equipment that is used, can vary widely. Gas Sweetening and Processing Field Manual provides engineers with the ability to understand and select the most efficient and cost effective method to fit their individual needs. Designed for engineers, technologists, and operations personnel involved in the design and operation of gas processing facilities, the book starts with an explanation of the terms and theories used throughout the industry. This is followed by clear and rigorous exposition of sweetness processes such as Solid Bed Adsorption, Chemical Solvents, Physical Solvents, Distillation, and Gas Permeation. Exercises appear at the conclusion of each chapter with hints in addition to full solutions.

Other topics include Design Procedure, Design Examples, Problems and Practical Solutions, Value of NGL Components, Liquid Recovery Process, Absorption/Lean Oil Process, Joule-Thomson, Refrigeration and Cryogenic (Expansion Turbine) Plants. Chapters involving applications cover Direct Conversion of H2S to Sulfur, Removal of H2S to Meet Pipeline Qualities, Removal of CO2 to Meet Pipeline Qualities and Selection Charts.

Engineers and process designers will find this text a valuable guide to gas sweetening process and equipment, both in terms of its application to efficient and cost effective operations. It will prove particularly useful to readers who want a "quick reference" guide to field operations and procedures as well as those readers who wish to increase their knowledge of best practices.

  • Rigorous exposition of all natural gas sweetness processes
  • Equipment and process trouble-shooting techniques
  • Tips for diagnosing and solving equipment and process problems
  • Exercises appear at the conclusion of each chapter


1;Front Cover;1 2;Gas Sweetening and Processing Field Manual;4 3;Copyright;5 4;Contents;6 5;Part 1: Gas Sweetening;12 5.1;Processing natural gas;12 5.1.1;Introduction;12 5.1.2;Natural Gas Processing;13 5.1.3;Oil and Condensate Removal;15 5.1.4;Water Removal;17 5.1.5;Glycol Dehydration;17 5.1.6;Solid-Desiccant Dehydration;19 5.1.7;Separation of NGLs;19 5.1.8;NGL Extraction;20 5.1.9;Absorption Method;20 5.1.10;Cryogenic Expansion Process;21 5.1.11;NGL Fractionation;22 5.1.12;Sulfur and Carbon Dioxide Removal;23 5.1.13;Gas Sweetening Plant;24 5.2;Acid gas considerations;25 5.2.1;Acid Gases;25 5.2.2;Sour Gas;25 5.2.3;Sweet Gas;25 5.2.4;Gas Sales Contracts Limit Concentration of Acid Compounds;27;CO2;27;H2S;27 5.2.5;Partial Pressure;27 5.2.6;NACE RP 0186;27 5.3;Sweetening processes;28 5.4;Solid bed processes;29 5.4.1;General Process Description;29 5.4.2;Iron Sponge Process;30;Application;30;Regeneration;32;Hydrate Considerations;34 5.4.3;Sulfa-Treat Process;35;Application;35 5.4.4;Molecular Sieve Process;36;Regeneration;36;Mechanical Degradation;37;Application;37 5.4.5;Zinc Oxide Process;37;Process;37;Bed Considerations;37;Application;38 5.5;Chemical solvent processes;38 5.5.1;General Process Description;38;Regeneration;38;Most Common Chemical Solvents;38 5.5.2;Amine Processes;38;Amine Considerations;38;Process Description;39;Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA);41;Monoethanolamine (MEA) Systems;41;General Discussion;41;Regeneration;41;Disadvantages;41;Reclaimer;42;Corrosion Considerations;43;Foam Considerations;43;Micro-fiber Filter Separator;43;Blanket Gas System;43;MEA Losses;44;Summary;44;Diethanolamine (DEA) Systems;44;General Discussion;44;Reclaimer;44;Solution Concentration and Solution Loading;
44;Amine Losses;45;Diglycolamine (DGA) Systems;45;General Discussion;45;Solution Concentration and Solution Loading;45;Advantages;45;Diisopropanolamine (DIPA) Systems;46;General Discussion;46;Advantages;46;Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) Systems;46;General Discussion;46;CO2/H2S Ratio;46;Solution Concentration and Solution Loading;47;Advantages;47;Inhibited Amine Systems;47;General Discussion;47 5.5.3;Hot Potassium Carbonate Systems;48;General Discussion;48;Process Description;48;Performance;49;Dead Spot Considerations;50;Corrosion Considerations;50 5.5.4;Proprietary Carbonate Systems;50 5.5.5;Specialty Batch Chemical Solvents;50;General Discussion;50;Process Description;51;Performance;51;Sulfa-Check;51;Concentration Considerations;51;Bubble Flow;52;Disposal of Oxidizing Solution;52 5.6;Physical solvent processes;52 5.6.1;General Process Description;52 5.6.2;Fluor Solvent Process;54 5.6.3;Sulfinol Process;55;Acid Gas Loadings;56;Features of the Sulfinol Process Include;56;Design Considerations;56;Foam Considerations;56;Factors to Consider Before Selecting a Treating Process;56 5.6.4;Selexol Process;57 5.6.5;Rectisol Process;57 5.7;Direct conversion processes;58 5.7.1;General Process Description;58 5.7.2;Stretford Process;58;General Discussion;58;Process Description;58 5.7.3;IFP Process;60;General Discussion;60;Process Description;61;Ratio of H2S to SO2;61 5.7.4;LO-CAT;61;General Discussion;61;Process Description;62;Operating Considerations;62;Sulferox;62 5.7.5;Claus;62;General Discussion;62;Process Description;64 5.7.6;Tail Gas Treating;66;General Discussion;66 5.7.7;Sulfa-Check;66;General Discus
sion;66 5.8;Distillation process;67 5.8.1;Ryan-Holmes Distillation Process;67;General Discussion;67;Process Description;67;Three-Column System;67;Four-Column System;68;Two-Column System;68 5.9;Gas permeation process;68 5.9.1;Membranes;68;Definition;68;Applications;68;Membrane Permeation;69;Asymmetric Membrane Structure;71;Composite Membrane Structure;72;Membrane Elements;74;Flat Sheet;74;Hollow Fiber;75;Spiral Wound Versus Hollow Fiber;77;Major Vendors;77;Membrane Modules;77;Membrane Skids;78 5.9.2;Design Considerations;79;Process Variables Affecting Design;79;Flow Rate;79;Operating Temperature;79;Feed Pressure;79;Permeate Pressure;80;CO2 Removal;82;Other Design Considerations;83;Process Conditions;83;Environmental Regulations;83;Location;84;Fuel Requirements;84;Design Standards;84;Process Flow Schemes;84;Single-Stage Membrane Process (Figure 1-21);84;Multistage Membrane Process;84;Two-Step Membrane Process;85;Two-Stage Membrane Process (Figure 1-22);85;Multistage Membrane Process;85 5.9.3;Membrane Pretreatment;88;General Considerations;88;Pretreatment System Considerations;88;Traditional Pretreatment;89;Additions to Traditional Pretreatment;90;Chiller;90;Turbo-Expander;90;Glycol Unit;90;Enhanced Pretreatment;91;Need for Enhanced Pretreatment;91 5.9.4;Advantages of Membrane Systems;94;Lower Capital Cost (CAPEX);94;Lower Operating Costs (OPEX);94;Deferred Capital Investment;94;High Turndown;95;Operational Simplicity and High Reliability;95;Single-Stage Membrane Systems;95;Multistage Membrane Sy
stems;95;Good Weight and Space Efficiency;96;Adaptability;96;Environmental Friendly;97;Design Efficiency;97;Power Generation;97;Ideal for De-bottlenecking;97;Ideal for Remote Locations;98 5.10;Process selection;98 5.10.1;Inlet Gas Stream Analysis;98 5.10.2;General Considerations;99 5.10.3;Removal of H2S to Meet Pipeline Qualities (4ppm);99;Feeds with Small Acid Gas Loadings;99;Feeds with Moderate to High Acid Gas Loadings;99;Process Must Be Added Downstream of the Amine System;100;Normally Accomplished with;100;Amine-Based System;100;Gas Permeation;100;General Considerations;100;Feeds with Low Concentrations of CO2;100;Feeds with Increasing Concentrations of CO2;100 5.10.4;Selection Charts;101;Selection Procedure;103 5.11;Design procedure;104 5.11.1;Iron Sponge;104;General Considerations;104;Design Considerations;105 5.11.2;The Amine System;108;General Considerations;108;Amine Absorbers;108;Amine Circulation Rates;109;Heat of Reaction;112;Flash Vessel;114;Amine Reboiler;114;Amine Stripper;115;Overhead Condenser and Reflux Accumulator;119;Rich/Lean Amine Exchangers;122;Amine Cooler;123;Amine Solution Purification;124;Amine Solution Pumps;124;Procedure for Sizing an Amine System;125 5.12;Design examples (oilfield units);126 5.12.1;Example Problem 1: Iron Sponge Unit;126 5.12.2;Example Problem 2: Amine Processing Unit (DEA);129 5.13;Design examples (SI units);139 5.13.1;Example Problem 1: Iron Sponge Unit;139 5.13.2;Example Problem 2: Amine Processing Unit (DEA);142 5.14;Nomenclature;150 6;Part 2: Gas Processing;152 6.1;NGL recovery considerations;152 6.1.1;"Gas Processing" Is Used to Refer to the Removal of;152 6.1.2;Liquids May Be;152 6.1.3;Processing Objectives;152 6.1.4;Pr
oducing Transportable Gas;153 6.1.5;Condensation Has Two Drawbacks;153 6.1.6;Two Alternatives Exist;153 6.1.7;Meeting Sales-Gas Specifications;153;Most Gas Specifications Contain;153;If HC Is More Valuable as a Liquid;153;If HC Is More Valuable as a Gas;153 6.1.8;Maximizing Liquid Recovery;153 6.2;Value of NGL components;154 6.2.1;Ethane and Heavier HC Components (C2+) Can Be Liquefied;154 6.2.2;"Crude Spiking";155 6.3;Gas processing terminology;156 6.3.1;Definitions of LPG and NGL;156 6.4;Liquid recovery processes;157 6.4.1;Any Cooling Will Induce Condensation and Yield NGL;157 6.4.2;Absorption/Lean Oil Process;158;General Considerations;158;In Most Lean Oil Plants;159;Liquid Recovery Levels;159;Disadvantages;160 6.4.3;Mechanical Refrigeration;160 6.4.4;Joule-Thomson (J-T) Expansions;162 6.4.5;Cryogenic (Expansion Turbine) Plants;162;Advantages;164 6.5;Process selection;164 6.5.1;If the NGL Content of the Feed Gas Is Low;165 6.5.2;For Gases Very Rich in NGL;165 6.5.3;If the Inlet Gas Pressure Is Very High;165 6.5.4;Low Inlet Gas Pressure;165 6.5.5;Very Low Gas Rates;165 6.5.6;Large Flow Rates;165 6.5.7;Remote Wells;165 6.6;Fractionation;165 6.7;Design considerations;166 7;Appendix A: Membrane/Amine Hybrid...;168 7.1;Introduction;168 7.2;Process overview;168 7.3;Background;168 7.3.1;General Considerations;168 7.3.2;First Commissioning;169 7.4;TSA design and performance;170 7.4.1;General Design Considerations;170 7.4.2;TSA Process Description;171 7.4.3;Reasons for Four Towers;172 7.4.4;Cycle Times and Breakthrough;172 7.4.5;Heat Recovery Between Cooling and Heating;172 7.5;Air liquide-medal membrane;174 7.5.1;General Considerations;174 7.5.2;Membrane Performance;176 7.6;Permeate/Acid Gas Utilization;177 7.7;Amine System;178 8;Appendix B: Judge Digby Gas Plant Hikes...;180 8.1;Judge digby plant;180 8.2;Debottlenecking;182 8.3;Preparing for the conversion;182 8.4;The turnaround;184 8.5;Plant operations;185
8.6;Betex emissions;186 9;Index;188


Ken Arnold is a Senior Technical Advisor for WorleyParsons in Houston, TX. Spanning over 50 years of experience, he spent 16 years' in facilities engineering, project engineering and engineering management with Shell before forming Paragon Engineering Services in 1980. Arnold retired from Paragon in 2007 and formed K Arnold Consulting, Inc. In 2010, he joined WorleyParsons as part-time advisor while still managing the consulting firm. He participated in the initial development of several API safety related Recommended Practices including RP 75 and RP 14J and most recently was Chair of the National Academies Committee on Evaluating the Effectiveness of Offshore Safety and Environmental Management Systems. He has served on the Board of SPE as its first Director of Projects, Facilities and Construction and then later as VP Finance. He is currently Treasurer of The Academy of Medicine, Engineering and Science of Texas. Arnold has a BSCE degree from Cornell and MS degree from Tulane and has taught facilities engineering in the University of Houston Petroleum Engineering program and for several oil companies. He is a registered professional engineer and serves on the advisory board of the engineering schools of Tulane University, Cornell University and the Petroleum Engineering Advisory Board of the University of Houston. Recently, Ken received the 2013 Distinguished Achievement Award, considered one of the highest recognitions anyone can achieve in the offshore industry, at this year's Offshore Technology Conference in Houston, TX for his outstanding leadership and extensive contributions to the E&P industry. His many achievements include playing an integral role in the offshore industry's focus on safety through the development of Recommended Practices for offshore design and safety management, and he developed approaches to both equipment sizing and facility project management that are still in use today. He has also been instrumental in the effort to establish oilfield facilities engineering as a recognized technical engineering specialty.
EAN: 9781856179836
Untertitel: 211:eBook ePub. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Elsevier Science
Erscheinungsdatum: Oktober 2011
Seitenanzahl: 200 Seiten
Format: epub eBook
Kopierschutz: Adobe DRM
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