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Bridging Inferences

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Juli 2011

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

This book develops a formalization that permits the integration of indirect anaphoric relationships in the construction of a structured discourse representation. From a broader perspective, it provides a suitable dynamic-logic framework that contextually constrains and inferentially resolves underspecification in cohesion and coherence of discourses. In addition, the book provides a synopsis of the problems, methods, approaches, and desiderata of research on text, context, and discourse interpretation.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1;Preface;6 2;Acknowledgements;8 3;Contents;10 4;Introduction;18 5;1 Pragmatic Inferences;24 5.1;1.1 Semantic Underspecification and Pragmatic Enrichment;24 5.1.1;1.1.1 Underspecified Semantics;25 5.1.2;1.1.2 Accounts of Pragmatic Inference;29 5.1.2.1;1.1.2.1 Conversational Implicatures;30 5.1.2.2;1.1.2.2 Generalized Conversational Implicatures;33 5.1.2.3;1.1.2.3 Explicatures;35 5.1.2.4;1.1.2.4 Primary and Secondary Pragmatic Processes;36 5.1.2.5;1.1.2.5 Abductive Inferences;37 5.1.2.6;1.1.2.6 Conclusion;38 5.1.3;1.1.3 Properties of Pragmatic Inferences;39 5.2;1.2 Formal Approaches to Defeasible Reasoning;42 5.2.1;1.2.1 Default Logic;44 5.2.2;1.2.2 Circumscription;49 5.2.3;1.2.3 Commonsense Entailment;52 5.2.4;1.2.4 Abductive Reasoning;54 5.2.5;1.2.5 Conclusion;58 5.3;1.3 Pragmatic Inferences Beyond the Sentence Level;60 5.3.1;1.3.1 Text and Discourse;60 5.3.2;1.3.2 Cohesion;62 5.3.3;1.3.3 Coherence;65 5.3.3.1;1.3.3.1 An Intentional View on Discourse Coherence;67 5.3.3.2;1.3.3.2 An Informational View on Discourse Coherence;68 5.3.4;1.3.4 Looking Ahead;69 6;2 The Common Ground and Intentions in Conversations;74 6.1;2.1 The Common Ground;74 6.1.1;2.1.1 Definitions of Shared Knowledge;74 6.1.2;2.1.2 The Use of the Common Ground in Conversation;79 6.1.2.1;2.1.2.1 Evidence from Language Production;79 6.1.2.2;2.1.2.2 Evidence from Language Comprehension;80 6.1.2.3;2.1.2.3 Discussion and Conclusion;81 6.1.3;2.1.3 Establishing the Common Ground;82 6.1.3.1;2.1.3.1 Accumulation;83 6.1.3.2;2.1.3.2 Grounding;83 6.1.3.3;2.1.3.3 Structuring the Common Ground;86 6.1.4;2.1.4 Conclusion;87 6.2;2.2 Modelling Intentions in Discourses;89 6.2.1;2.2.1 Optimality Theory for Discourse Pragmatics;90 6.2.2;2.2.2 Linguistic Communication as a Game;93 6.2.3;2.2.3 Conclusion;95 7;3 The Discourse Model and Discourse Anaphora;96 7.1;3.1 Discourse Anaphora;97 7.1.1;3.1.1 Types and Distribution of Anaphoric Expressions;97 7.1.2;3.1.2 Syntactic and Semantic Notions of Anaphora;101 7.2;3.2 The Discou
rse Model;105 7.2.1;3.2.1 Conceptions of Discourse Models;105 7.2.2;3.2.2 Requirements on Discourse Models;109 7.3;3.3 Discourse Referents;111 7.3.1;3.3.1 Introducing Discourse Referents in the Discourse Model;111 7.3.2;3.3.2 Accessing Discourse Referents as Antecedents for Anaphora;113 7.3.2.1;3.3.2.1 Familiarity;113 7.3.2.2;3.3.2.2 Givenness;114 7.3.2.3;3.3.2.3 Accessibility;115 7.3.2.4;3.3.2.4 Salience;117 7.3.2.5;3.3.2.5 Activation;118 7.3.3;3.3.3 Conclusion;120 7.4;3.4 Theories of Anaphora Resolution;120 7.4.1;3.4.1 A Pragmatic Account;121 7.4.2;3.4.2 Computational Accounts;125 7.4.2.1;3.4.2.1 Focus Theory;125 7.4.2.2;3.4.2.2 Centering Theory;126 7.4.3;3.4.3 Dynamic Semantics and Discourse Representation Theory;131 7.4.3.1;3.4.3.1 Context as Index;132 7.4.3.2;3.4.3.2 Dynamic Semantics;133 7.4.3.3;3.4.3.3 Discourse Representation Theory;134 7.4.3.4;3.4.3.4 Anaphora in DRT;139 7.4.3.5;3.4.3.5 Discussion;141 7.4.4;3.4.4 Conclusion;142 8;4 Discourse Structure;144 8.1;4.1 Characteristics of Discourse Structure;145 8.1.1;4.1.1 Discourse Segments: Basic Structural Units;145 8.1.2;4.1.2 Connecting Discourse Segments;146 8.1.2.1;4.1.2.1 Discourse Markers;146 8.1.2.2;4.1.2.2 Discourse Relations;147 8.1.3;4.1.3 The Form of Discourse Structure;148 8.1.3.1;4.1.3.1 Sequences;148 8.1.3.2;4.1.3.2 Stacks;149 8.1.3.3;4.1.3.3 Trees;150 8.1.3.4;4.1.3.4 Graphs;154 8.1.3.5;4.1.4 Conclusion;157 8.2;4.2 Discourse Relations;158 8.2.1;4.2.1 Hobbs Coherence Relations;159 8.2.2;4.2.2 Kehlers Three Types of Coherence;160 8.2.2.1;4.2.2.1 Coherence Relations: Cause-Effect;160 8.2.2.2;4.2.2.2 Coherence Relations: Resemblance;161 8.2.2.3;4.2.2.3 Coherence Relations: Contiguity;163 8.2.2.4;4.2.2.4 Linguistic Phenomena Explained by Kehlers Taxonomy;164 8.2.2.5;4.2.2.5 Problems with Kehlers Theory;168 8.2.3;4.2.3 Rhetorical Structure Theory;170 8.2.4;4.2.4 Rhetorical Relations in SDRT;176 8.2.5;4.2.5 Conclusion;182 8.3;4.3 Discourse Topic;182 8.3.1;4.3.1 Discourse Topic as Entity;184 8.3.2;4.3.2
Discourse Topic as Proposition;184 8.3.3;4.3.3 Discourse Topic as Question;188 8.3.3.1;4.3.3.1 Contrastive Sentence Topics;188 8.3.3.2;4.3.3.2 Topic-Comment Structures for Discourses;190 8.3.3.3;4.3.3.3 Quaestio Theory;192 8.3.3.4;4.3.3.4 Questions Under Discussion;194 8.3.4;4.3.4 Conclusion;195 9;5 Discourse Interpretation;198 9.1;5.1 Discourse Interpretation as Abduction;198 9.1.1;5.1.1 Flat Logical Forms;199 9.1.2;5.1.2 Weighted Abduction;200 9.1.3;5.1.3 Local Pragmatic Interpretation;203 9.1.4;5.1.4 Abduction in Structured Discourses;204 9.1.5;5.1.5 Conclusion;208 9.2;5.2 Minimal Model Generation;210 9.2.1;5.2.1 Herbrand Models for First-Order Languages;210 9.2.2;5.2.2 Generation of Discourse Models;212 9.2.3;5.2.3 Minimality of Models;215 9.2.4;5.2.4 Minimal Models and Discourse Anaphora;217 9.2.4.1;5.2.4.1 Resolving Pronouns by Model Generation;217 9.2.4.2;5.2.4.2 Equality by Default;220 9.2.5;5.2.5 Conclusion;223 9.3;5.3 Segmented Discourse Representation Theory;224 9.3.1;5.3.1 Representing Discourse Structures;225 9.3.2;5.3.2 Constructing Discourse Structures;228 9.3.2.1;5.3.2.1 The Logic of Underspecified Information Content;228 9.3.2.2;5.3.2.2 The Glue Logic;229 9.3.2.3;5.3.2.3 Discourse Update;233 9.3.2.4;5.3.2.4 Constraining Attachment;234 9.3.2.5;5.3.2.5 Maximize Discourse Coherence;236 9.3.3;5.3.3 Conclusion;237 10;6 Bridging Inferences;240 10.1;6.1 Bridging Anaphora;240 10.1.1;6.1.1 A Preliminary Classification;241 10.1.2;6.1.2 Corpus Studies on Anaphoric Expressions;242 10.1.3;6.1.3 Psycholinguistic Investigations;246 10.1.4;6.1.4 A Refined Classification;250 10.2;6.2 Bridging Relations;254 10.2.1;6.2.1 Mereological Relations;256 10.2.2;6.2.2 Relations Involving Events and Frames;257 10.3;6.3 Anaphora Resolution by Bridging Inferences;259 10.3.1;6.3.1 Pragmatic Accounts;259 10.3.2;6.3.2 Computational Accounts;261 10.3.2.1;6.3.2.1 Minimal Models for Bridging Anaphora;261 10.3.2.2;6.3.2.2 Automated Anaphora Resolution (Freitas, 2005);263 10.3.3;6.3.3 B
ridging in SDRT;267 10.3.3.1;6.3.3.1 Representing Bridging Anaphora;268 10.3.3.2;6.3.3.2 Resolving Bridging Anaphora;271 10.3.3.3;6.3.3.3 Extending SDRT by Equality by Default;275 10.4;6.4 Conclusion;279 11;7 Bridges Between Events;280 11.1;7.1 Frame Semantics and FrameNet;280 11.1.1;7.1.1 Frame Semantics;280 11.1.2;7.1.2 FrameNet;281 11.1.2.1;7.1.2.1 Lexical Units;282 11.1.2.2;7.1.2.2 Frame Elements;283 11.1.2.3;7.1.2.3 Relations between Frames;286 11.1.2.4;7.1.2.4 Relations between Frame Elements;290 11.2;7.2 Building Bridges using FrameNet and SDRT;292 11.2.1;7.2.1 Integrating FrameNet and SDRT;292 11.2.2;7.2.2 Representing Frame Elements in SDRT;293 11.2.3;7.2.3 Establishing Discourse Relations by FrameNet Data;299 11.3;7.3 Constraints on Bridging Inferences;302 11.3.1;7.3.1 Bridging Constraints;303 11.3.1.1;7.3.1.1 The Preference for Coreference;303 11.3.1.2;7.3.1.2 Plausibility and Consistency;304 11.3.1.3;7.3.1.3 The Right Frontier Constraint;306 11.3.1.4;7.3.1.4 Maximize Discourse Coherence;308 11.3.2;7.3.2 Weak Discourse Referents as Bridging Anchors;310 11.4;7.4 Related Approaches;312 11.4.1;7.4.1 Implicit Arguments as A-definites (Koenig & Mauner, 1999);312 11.4.2;7.4.2 Bridging as Coercive Accommodation (Bos et al., 1995);314 11.4.3;7.4.3 FrameNet and DRT (Bos & Nissim, 2008);318 11.5;7.5 Conclusion;319 12;8 Bridging by Clitic Left Dislocation;322 12.1;8.1 Dislocation Constructions Across Languages;322 12.1.1;8.1.1 Left Dislocation vs. Topicalization;322 12.1.2;8.1.2 Left Dislocation vs. Focus Fronting;324 12.1.3;8.1.3 Hanging Topic Left Dislocation vs. Clitic Left Dislocation;324 12.1.4;8.1.4 Clitic Left Dislocation in Spanish;327 12.2;8.2 Discourse Functions of Left Dislocation;329 12.2.1;8.2.1 CLLD and Familiarity;331 12.2.1.1;8.2.1.1 Given Entities;331 12.2.1.2;8.2.1.2 Inferrable Entities;332 12.2.1.3;8.2.1.3 New Entities;335 12.2.2;8.2.2 CLLD and Discourse Topic;335 12.2.2.1;8.2.2.1 Topic Change;336 12.2.2.2;8.2.2.2 Topic Continuity;339 12.2.2.3;8.2
.2.3 Conclusion;341 12.2.3;8.2.3 CLLD, Contrast, and Constraints on Discourse Structure;342 12.2.3.1;8.2.3.1 CLLD and Contrast;342 12.2.3.2;8.2.3.2 Constraints on Discourse Structure;344 12.2.3.3;8.2.3.3 Discussion;348 12.3;8.3 Semantics and Discourse Integration of Left Dislocations;349 12.3.1;8.3.1 From Syntax to Semantics;349 12.3.2;8.3.2 Towards a Discourse Semantic Representation of CLLD;352 12.3.3;8.3.3 Resolving Mereological Bridging Anaphora;354 12.3.3.1;8.3.3.1 Building Bridges via CLLD;354 12.3.3.2;8.3.3.2 Using Frame Information for Building Bridges;360 12.3.4;8.3.4 Resolving Frame-related Bridging Anaphora;366 12.4;8.4 Conclusion;371 13;Summary;374 14;List of Figures and Tables;382 15;List of Abbreviations;386 16;A Note on Used Corpora;388 17;Bibliography;390 18;Citation Index;414 19;Subject Index;420


Portrait

Matthias Irmer,University of Leipzig, Germany.

EAN: 9783110262018
Untertitel: Constraining and Resolving Underspecification in Discourse Interpretation. Sprache: Englisch. Dateigröße in MByte: 3.
Verlag: Gruyter, Walter de GmbH
Erscheinungsdatum: Juli 2011
Format: pdf eBook
Kopierschutz: Adobe DRM
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