Building with Earth

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Januar 2009



Now in a second edition: This handbook offers a practical systematic overview of the many uses of rammed earth and techniques for processing it. Its properties and physical characteristics are described in informed and knowledgeable detail.


1;Preface;7 2;I The technology of earth building;9 2.1;1 Introduction;11 2.1.1;History;11 2.1.2;Earth as a building material: the essentials;13 2.1.3;Improving indoor climate;15 2.1.4;Prejudices against earth as a building material;18 2.2;2 The properties of earth as a building material;19 2.2.1;Composition;19 2.2.2;Tests used to analyse the composition of loam;21 2.2.3;Effects of water;24 2.2.4;Effects of vapour;29 2.2.5;Influence of heat;31 2.2.6;Strength;32 2.2.7;pH-value;35 2.2.8;Radioactivity;35 2.2.9;Shelter against high-frequency electromagnetic radiation;35 2.3;3 Preparing of loam;36 2.3.1;Soaking, crushing and mixing;36 2.3.2;Sieving;38 2.3.3;Mechanical slurrying;38 2.3.4;Water curing;38 2.3.5;Thinning;38 2.4;4 Improving the earths characteristics by special treatment or additives;39 2.4.1;Reduction of shrinkage cracks;39 2.4.2;Stabilisation against water erosion;40 2.4.3;Enhancement of binding force;42 2.4.4;Increasing compressive strength;43 2.4.5;Strength against abrasion;47 2.4.6;Increasing thermal insulation;47 2.5;5 Rammed earthworks;52 2.5.1;Formwork;53 2.5.2;Tools;54 2.5.3;Method of construction;55 2.5.4;Shaping of openings;55 2.5.5;New wall construction techniques;56 2.5.6;Rammed earth domes;59 2.5.7;Drying;59 2.5.8;Labour input;60 2.5.9;Thermal insulation;60 2.5.10;Surface treatment;60 2.6;6 Working with earth blocks;61 2.6.1;History;61 2.6.2;Production of earth blocks;62 2.6.3;Material composition;65 2.6.4;Laying earth blocks;65 2.6.5;Surface treatment;66 2.6.6;Fixing fasteners to walls;67 2.6.7;Lightweight loam blocks;67 2.6.8;Special acoustic green bricks;68 2.7;7 Large blocks and prefabricated panels;69 2.7.1;Large blocks;69 2.7.2;Prefabricated wall panels;70 2.7.3;Floor slabs;70 2.7.4;Floor tiles;71 2.7.5;Extruded loam slabs;71 2.8;8 Direct forming with wet loam;72 2.8.1;Traditional wet loam techniques;72 2.8.2;The Dünne loam loaf technique;74 2.8.3;The stranglehm technique;75 2.9;9 Wet loam infill in skeleton structures;80 2.9.1;Thrown loam;
80 2.9.2;Sprayed loam;80 2.9.3;Rolls and bottles of straw loam;81 2.9.4;Lightweight loam infill;82 2.9.5;Infill with stranglehm and earth-filled hoses;82 2.10;10 Tamped, poured or pumped lightweight loam;83 2.10.1;Formwork;83 2.10.2;Tamped lightweight straw loam walls;83 2.10.3;Tamped lightweight wood loam walls;84 2.10.4;Tamped, poured or pumped lightweight mineral loam walls;85 2.10.5;Pumped lightweight mineral loam floors;88 2.10.6;Loam-filled hollow blocks;89 2.10.7;Loam-filled hoses;90 2.11;11 Loam plasters;92 2.11.1;Preparation of ground;92 2.11.2;Composition of loam plaster;92 2.11.3;Guidelines for plastering earth walls;94 2.11.4;Sprayed plaster;95 2.11.5;Lightweight mineral loam plaster;95 2.11.6;Thrown plaster;95 2.11.7;Plastered straw bale houses;95 2.11.8;Wet formed plaster;96 2.11.9;Protection of corners;96 2.12;12 Weather protection of loam surfaces;98 2.12.1;Consolidating the surface;98 2.12.2;Paints;98 2.12.3;Making surfaces water-repellent;101 2.12.4;Lime plasters;101 2.12.5;Shingles, planks and other covers;103 2.12.6;Structural methods;103 2.13;13 Repair of loam components;104 2.13.1;The occurrence of damage in loam components;104 2.13.2;Repair of cracks and joints with loam fillers;104 2.13.3;Repair of cracks and joints with other fillers;105 2.13.4;Repairing larger areas of damage;105 2.13.5;Retrofitting thermal insulation with lightweight loam;106 2.14;14 Designs of particular building elements;107 2.14.1;Joints;107 2.14.2;Particular wall designs;108 2.14.3;Intermediate floors;110 2.14.4;Rammed earth floorings;112 2.14.5;Inclined roofs filled with lightweight loam;115 2.14.6;Earth-covered roofs;115 2.14.7;Earth block vaults and domes;117 2.14.8;Earthen storage wall in winter gardens;131 2.14.9;Loam in bathrooms;132 2.14.10;Built-in furniture and sanitary objects from loam;133 2.14.11;Wall heating systems;134 2.14.12;Passive solar wall heating system;134 2.15;15 Earthquake-resistant building;135 2.15.1;Structural measures;136 2.15.2;Openings for
doors and windows;140 2.15.3;Bamboo-reinforced rammed earth walls;141 2.15.4;Domes;144 2.15.5;Vaults;145 2.15.6;Textile walls with loam infill;147 3;II Built examples;149 3.1;Residences;150 3.1.1;Two semi-deatched houses, Kassel, Germany;150 3.1.2;Residence cum office, Kassel, Germany;152 3.1.3;Residence at Phoenix, Arizona, USA;154 3.1.4;Farmhouse, Wazirpur, India;156 3.1.5;Honey house at Moab, Utah, USA;157 3.1.6;Residence, La Paz, Bolivia;158 3.1.7;Residence, Turku, Finland;159 3.1.8;Residence and studio at Gallina Canyon, New Mexico, USA;160 3.1.9;Residence at Villa de Leyva, Colombia;162 3.1.10;Low Compound at Scottsdale, Arizona, USA;164 3.1.11;Residence at Des Montes, near Taos, New Mexico, USA;166 3.1.12;Casita Nuaanarpoq at Taos, New Mexico, USA;168 3.1.13;Residence and office at Bowen Mountain, New South Wales, Australia;169 3.1.14;Vineyard residence at Mornington Peninsula, Victoria, Australia;170 3.1.15;Residence, Helensville, New Zealand;172 3.1.16;Residence, Sao Francisco Xavier, Brazil;174 3.1.17;Three-family house, Stein on the Rhine, Switzerland;176 3.2;Cultural, Educational and Sacral Buildings;177 3.2.1;School at Solvig, Järna, Sweden;177 3.2.2;Kindergarten, Sorsum, Germany;178 3.2.3;School in Rudrapur, Bangladesh;180 3.2.4;Kindergarten and nursery of Druk White Lotus School, Ladakh, India;182 3.2.5;Panafrican Institute for Development, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso;184 3.2.6;Youth centre at Spandau, Berlin, Germany;186 3.2.7;Printing plant in Pielach, Austria;188 3.2.8;Office building, New Delhi, India;190 3.2.9;Mii amo spa at Sedona, Arizona, USA;192 3.2.10;Tourist resort at Baird Bay, Eyre Peninsula, South Australia;194 3.2.11;Charles Sturt University at Thurgoona, New South Wales, Australia;195 3.2.12;Chapel of the central clinic in Suhl, Germany;196 3.2.13;Cultural centre, La Paz, Bolivia;198 3.2.14;Mosque, Wabern, Germany;199 3.2.15;Chapel of Reconciliation, Berlin, Germany;200 3.2.16;Center of Gravity Foundation Hall at Jemez Springs, New Mexi
co, USA;202 4;Future prospects;204 5;Measures;205 6;Bibliographical references;206 7;Acknowledgements;207 8;Illustration credits;207


Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gernot Minke ist Hochschullehrer an der Universität Kassel, wo er das Forschungslabor für Experimentelles Bauen leitet und sich seit langem mit Entwicklungen des ökologischen Bauens beschäftigt. Mit dem Baustoff Lehm befaßt er sich in Theorie und Praxis seit 1977. Sein Buch «Building with Straw» ist ebenfalls bei Birkhäuser erschienen.

EAN: 9783034612623
Untertitel: Design and Technology of a Sustainable Architecture. 2. Auflage. Sprache: Englisch. Dateigröße in MByte: 31.
Verlag: Birkhäuser Verlag GmbH
Erscheinungsdatum: Januar 2009
Seitenanzahl: 199 Seiten
Format: pdf eBook
Kopierschutz: Adobe DRM
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