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The Biology of Animal Viruses


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September 2013

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

The Biology of Animal Viruses, Second Edition deals with animal viruses focusing on molecular biology and tumor virology. The book reviews the nature, chemical composition, structure, and classification of animal viruses. The text also describes the methods of isolating animal viruses, how these are grown in the laboratory, assayed, purified, and used in biochemical experiments. The book also describes the structure and chemistry of many known viruses such as the papovaviridae, herpes virus, poxvirus, coronavirus, or the Bunyamwera supergroup. The book then explains the structure and function of the animal cell including the cytoplasmic organelles, the nucleus, inhibitors of cell function, and viral multiplication. Other papers discuss in detail the multiplication of the DNA and RNA viruses, whose mechanisms of multiplication differ from those of other viruses. Other papers discuss the known prevention and treatment methods of viral diseases, as well as the epidemiology and evolution of viral diseases resulting from human's disturbance of the biosphere and from medical and experimental innovations. The text can prove useful for immunologists, veterinarians, virologists, molecular researchers, students, and academicians in the field of cellular microbiology and virology.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1;Front Cover;1 2;The Biology of Animal Viruses;4 3;Copyright Page;5 4;Table of Contents;6 5;Preface;12 6;Preface to First Edition;14 7;Acknowledgments;16 8;Chapter 1. The Nature and Classification of Animal Viruses;18 8.1;Introduction;18 8.2;The Nature of Viruses;18 8.3;The Chemical Composition of Animal Viruses;19 8.4;The Structure of Animal Viruses;21 8.5;Classification and Nomenclature in Biology;27 8.6;Previous Classifications of Viruses;28 8.7;A Classification of Animal Viruses;30 8.8;Short Descriptions of the Major Groups of DNA Viruses;32 8.9;Short Descriptions of the Major Groups of RNA Viruses;37 8.10;Unclassified Viruses;49 8.11;The Origins of Viruses;50 9;Chapter 2. Cultivation, Assay, and Analysis of Viruses;52 9.1;Introduction;52 9.2;Cell Culture;52 9.3;Embryonated Eggs;59 9.4;Laboratory Animals;60 9.5;Assay of Viral Infectivity;60 9.6;Assay of Other Properties of Virions;68 9.7;Purification and Separation of Virions and Their Components;70 9.8;Electron Microscopy of Viruses;74 9.9;Nucleic Acid Hybridization;74 9.10;Examination of an Unknown Virus;75 9.11;Measurement of Antibodies and Antigens;79 10;Chapter 3. The Structure and Chemistry of the Virion: A Systematic Survey;89 10.1;Introduction;89 10.2;Papovaviridae;89 10.3;Adenovirus;96 10.4;Herpesvirus;102 10.5;Iridovirus;106 10.6;Poxvirus;110 10.7;Parvovirus;116 10.8;Picornaviridae;119 10.9;Togaviridae;123 10.10;Orthomyxovirus;128 10.11;Paramyxovirus;134 10.12;Coronavirus;138 10.13;Arenavirus;140 10.14;Bunyamwera Supergroup;140 10.15;Rhabdovirus;144 10.16;Leukovirus;147 10.17;Reovirus;156 10.18;Orbivirus;160 10.19;Unclassified Viruses;162 10.20;General Observations;166 11;Chapter 4. Structure and Function of the Animal Cell;172 11.1;Introduction;172 11.2;Structure of an Undifferentiated Animal Cell;172 11.3;The Cytoplasmic Membrane;173 11.4;Cytoplasmic Organelles;176 11.5;The Nucleus;180 11.6;The Cell Cycle;182 11.7;Molecular Biology of Animal Cells;184 11.8;Inhibitors of Cell Function and Viral Multi
plication;188 12;Chapter 5. The Multiplication of DNA Viruses;193 12.1;Introduction;193 12.2;The Multiplication Cycle;193 12.3;The Essential Steps in Multiplication;194 12.4;A Systematic Survey;199 12.5;Parvovirus;200 12.6;Papovaviridae;201 12.7;Adenovirus;208 12.8;Herpesvirus;215 12.9;Iridovirus;222 12.10;Poxvirus;224 13;Chapter 6. The Multiplication of RNA Viruses;238 13.1;Introduction;238 13.2;The Essential Steps in Multiplication;238 13.3;A Systematic Survey;243 13.4;Picornaviridae;243 13.5;Togaviridae;256 13.6;Orthomyxovirus;260 13.7;Paramyxovirus;268 13.8;Coronavirus;273 13.9;Arenavirus;274 13.10;Bunyamwera Supergroup;274 13.11;Rhabdovirus;275 13.12;Leukovirus;279 13.13;Reovirus;283 13.14;Orbivirus;290 14;Chapter 7. Viral Genetics;291 14.1;Introduction;291 14.2;Numbers of Genes in Viruses;292 14.3;Technical Methods;293 14.4;Host-Controlled Modification;295 14.5;Mutation;295 14.6;Kinds of Mutants of Animal Viruses;298 14.7;Interactions between Viruses;307 14.8;Genetic Recombination;309 14.9;Interactions of Viral Nucleic Acid and Cellular DNA;318 14.10;Genetic Reactivation;318 14.11;Host-Cell Reactivation and Photoreactivation;319 14.12;Complementation;319 14.13;Adenoviruses and SV40;326 14.14;Phenotypic Mixing;331 14.15;Heterozygosis and Polyploidy;332 14.16;Mapping by Serial Inactivation and Direct Biochemical Analysis;333 14.17;Adaptation to New Hosts;334 15;Chapter 8. Interference and Interferon;336 15.1;Introduction;336 15.2;Virus-Attachment Interference;337 15.3;Homologous Interference;337 15.4;Heterologous Interference;339 15.5;Interferon-Mediated Interference;340 15.6;Biological Properties of Interferons;341 15.7;Physicochemical Properties of Interferons;342 15.8;Methods of Assay of Interferons;344 15.9;Induction of Interferon;344 15.10;Viruses and Nucleic Acid as Inducers of Interferon;345 15.11;Mechanism of Interferon Action;348 15.12;Enhancement;352 16;Chapter 9. Pathogenesis: The Spread of Viruses through the Body;355 16.1;Introduction;355 16.2;Mecha
nisms of Cell Damage;355 16.3;Cell Damage in the Infected Animal;362 16.4;Infections of the Skin;363 16.5;Infections of the Respiratory Tract;366 16.6;Infections of the Alimentary Tract;373 16.7;Systemic Infections;376 16.8;Generalized Infections with Rashes;384 16.9;Infections of the Nervous System;389 16.10;Congenital Infections;399 16.11;Infections of Lymphoid Tissues;405 16.12;Infections of Miscellaneous Organs;407 16.13;The Incubation Period and Its Significance in Pathogenesis;409 16.14;Virulence at the Level of Organism;409 17;Chapter 10. Pathogenesis: The Immune Response;411 17.1;Introduction;411 17.2;The Immunoglobulins;411 17.3;Complement;415 17.4;Cell-Mediated Immunity;416 17.5;Cells and Tissues Involved in the Immune Response;417 17.6;The Immune Response in Mature Animals;419 17.7;Immunological Tolerance;421 17.8;Immunity in the Fetus and Newborn;422 17.9;The Immune Response to Viral Infection;423 17.10;Neutralization of Viruses by Antibody;425 17.11;Secretory Antibodies on Mucosal Surfaces;429 17.12;Passive Immunity;431 17.13;The Duration of Active Immunity;433 17.14;Changes in the Reactivity of Antibodies after Multiple Infections;434 17.15;Recovery from Viral Infection;436 17.16;The Immune Response as a Cause of Pathological Changes;438 17.17;Immunosuppression by Viruses;440 17.18;Immunological Tolerance in Viral Infection;441 17.19;Immunological Aspects of Infections with Oncogenic Viruses;442 17.20;Novel Antigens on the Surface of Cells Undergoing Cytocidal Infections;445 18;Chapter 11. Pathogenesis: Nonimmunological Factors and Genetic Resistance;446 18.1;Introduction;446 18.2;Interference and Interferon in the Intact Animal;446 18.3;Other Nonimmunological Factors in Resistance;450 18.4;The Influence of Age on Resistance to Viral Infections;457 18.5;Genetic Resistance;462 19;Chapter 12. Persistent Infections;469 19.1;Introduction;469 19.2;Persistent Infections of Cultured Cells;471 19.3;Persistent Infections in Intact Animals;474 19.4;Latent Infect
ions;474 19.5;Chronic Infections;478 19.6;Slow Infections;485 19.7;Factors in the Pathogenesis of Persistent Infections;493 20;Chapter 13. Viral Oncogenesis: DNA Viruses;496 20.1;Introduction;496 20.2;Tumors Produced under Natural Conditions;496 20.3;Tumor Production by Adenoviruses;504 20.4;Transformation of Cultured Cells by Adenoviruses;506 20.5;Tumor Production by Polyoma Virus and SV40;509 20.6;Interactions of Polyoma Virus and SV40 with Cultured Cells;511 20.7;Events during Nonproductive Infection with Polyoma Virus and SV40;512 20.8;Properties of Transformed Cells;515 20.9;Adenovirus-SV40 Hybrid Viruses;523 21;Chapter 14. Viral Oncogenesis: RNA Viruses;525 21.1;Introduction;525 21.2;Avian RNA Tumor Viruses in Chickens;526 21.3;Rous Sarcoma Virus in Mammals;529 21.4;Interactions of Avian Tumor Viruses with Cultured Avian Cells;530 21.5;Properties of Cells Transformed by Avian Tumor Viruses;537 21.6;Transformation of Cultured Mammalian Cells by Avian Tumor Viruses;538 21.7;Mechanism of Transformation by Avian Tumor Viruses;539 21.8;Murine Leukoviruses: Subgenus A;543 21.9;Pathogenesis of Murine Leukemia;545 21.10;Murine Sarcoma Viruses;548 21.11;Mammary Tumor Virus: Leukovirus Subgenus B;550 21.12;Human Tumor Viruses;552 21.13;Other RNA Tumor Viruses;553 21.14;Induction of Mammalian Leukoviruses, Oncogenes, Protoviruses, Provirus;554 21.15;Epilogue;558 22;Chapter 15. Prevention and Treatment of Viral Diseases;560 22.1;Introduction;560 22.2;Efficacy of Viral Vaccines;560 22.3;Safety of Viral Vaccines;561 22.4;Live Vaccines;563 22.5;Inactivated Vaccines;568 22.6;Passive Immunization;570 22.7;The Psychology of Immunization;571 22.8;Medical and Veterinary Vaccines;572 22.9;Human Viral Vaccines;572 22.10;Prospects for New Vaccines;583 22.11;Antiviral Chemotherapy and Chemoprophylaxis;584 22.12;Interferon;588 22.13;Synthetic Polynucleotides and Other Interferon Inducers;592 22.14;Idoxuridine and Other Halogenated Nucleosides;596 22.15;Thiosemicarbazones;599 22.16;Ama
ntadine and Derivatives;600 22.17;Some Other Compounds of Potential Value;600 23;Chapter 16. The Epidemiology of Viral Infections;604 23.1;Introduction;604 23.2;Routes of Entry and Exit;605 23.3;The Respiratory Tract;610 23.4;The Alimentary Tract;612 23.5;The Eye and the Genitourinary Tract;613 23.6;Vertical Transmission;613 23.7;The Epidemiological Importance of Immunity;615 23.8;Multiple-Host Infections: The Viral Zoonoses;625 23.9;Seasons and Weather;629 23.10;Overwintering of Arboviruses;630 23.11;The Epidemiological Importance of Inapparent Infections;631 23.12;Epidemiological Research;632 24;Chapter 17. Evolutionary Aspects of Viral Diseases;635 24.1;Introduction;635 24.2;The Antiquity of Some Viruses;635 24.3;Changes of Virus and Host in Myxomatosis;640 24.4;Influenza in Man;644 24.5;Antigenic Drift with Other Viruses;647 24.6;New Viruses and New Viral Diseases;648 24.7;The Eradication of Viral Diseases;657 25;Bibliography;659 26;Index;794


EAN: 9781483271880
Untertitel: 200:Adobe eBook. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Elsevier Science
Erscheinungsdatum: September 2013
Format: pdf eBook
Kopierschutz: Adobe DRM
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