HUDU

Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science, Volume 23


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Oktober 2013

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

The commercial culture of marine shrimp in tropical areas has grown at a phenomenal rate during the last 10 to 15 years. This book provides a description of principles and practices of shrimp culture at one point in time and documents both historical events and conditions now. It also tries to look into the future. The volume provides both practical information about shrimp culture, as well as basic information on shrimp biology. It should be of value to researchers, consultant practitioners and potential investors in the marine shrimp culture industry.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1;Front Cover;1 2;Marine Shrimp Culture: Principles and Practices;4 3;Copyright Page;5 4;Table of Contents;9 5;Preface;6 6;Acknowledgements;12 7;Contributors;13 8;CHAPTER 1. Introduction;18 8.1;1.1 EARLY SHRIMP CULTURE;18 8.2;1.2 POND STOCKING WITH WILD SEED;18 8.3;1.3 CAPTIVE REPRODUCTION WITH WILD GRAVID SHRIMP;20 8.4;1.4 CAPTIVE REPRODUCTION FROM NON-GRAVID SHRIMP;20 8.5;1.5 EVOLUTION OF POND CULTURE;21 8.6;1.6 CRUSTACEAN AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION;22 8.7;1.7 FUTURE TRENDS;22 8.8;1.8 TERMINOLOGY: SHRIMP VS. PRAWNS;23 8.9;1.9 REFERENCES;24 9;CHAPTER 2. Penaeid Taxonomy, Biology and Zoogeography;26 9.1;2.1 INTRODUCTION;26 9.2;2.2 TAXONOMY;27 9.3;2.3 THE APPENDAGES;29 9.4;2.4 MORPHOLOGY OF EIGHT CULTURED SPECIES;29 9.5;2.5. BIOLOGY;32 9.6;2.6 ZOOGEOGRAPHY;38 9.7;2.7 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS;40 9.8;2.8 REFERENCES;40 10;CHAPTER 3. Genetics of Penaeus Species;46 10.1;3.1 INTRODUCTION;46 10.2;3.2 GENETICS OF WILD POPULATIONS;46 10.3;3.3 QUANTITATIVE GENETICS OF COMMERCIAL TRAITS;59 10.4;3.4 DOMESTICATION AND GENETIC MANIPULATION;64 10.5;3.5 REFERENCES;66 11;CHAPTER 4. Endocrinology;70 11.1;4.1 INTRODUCTION;70 11.2;4.2 ENDOCRINE REGULATION OF MOLTING;71 11.3;4.3 MALE SEX DETERMINATION AND REPRODUCTION;83 11.4;4.4 FEMALE REPRODUCTION;87 11.5;4.5 PIGMENTATION;90 11.6;4.6 METABOLISM AND WATER BALANCE;94 11.7;4.7 CONCLUSIONS;98 11.8;4.8 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS;98 11.9;4.9 REFERENCES;98 12;CHAPTER 5. Reproduction of Penaeus Species in Captivity;110 12.1;5.1 INTRODUCTION;110 12.2;5.2 BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION;117 12.3;5.3 SEAWATER PARAMETERS FOR REPRODUCTION;139 12.4;5.4 ENVIRONMENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL INFLUENCES;144 12.5;5.5 NUTRITION;153 12.6;5.6 CULTURE SYSTEMS FOR REPRODUCTION;159 12.7;5.7 QUALITY OF OFFSPRING;164 12.8;5.8 References;167 13;CHAPTER 6. Penaeid Larviculture: Galveston Method;188 13.1;6.1 INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE;188 13.2;6.2 ORIGINAL SYSTEM DESCRIPTION;189 13.3;6.3 CURRENT METHODOLOGY;192 13.4;6.4 REFERENCES;207 14;CHAPTER 7. Penaeid Larviculture: Taiwanese Method
;210 14.1;7.1 INTRODUCTION;210 14.2;7.2 ACQUIRING AND MAINTAINING BROODSTOCK;212 14.3;7.3 MATURATION AND SPAWNING;212 14.4;7.4 HATCHERIES;217 14.5;7.5 LARVAL REARING;217 14.6;7.6 PROBLEMS IN LARVAL REARING;224 14.7;7.7 RECOMMENDATIONS;228 14.8;7.8 REFERENCES;229 15;CHAPTER 8. Penaeid Larviculture: Small-Scale Asian Hatcheries;234 15.1;8.1 INTRODUCTION;234 15.2;8.2 HATCHERY METHODS;235 15.3;8.3 SHRIMP/PRAWN SPECIES ALTERNATIVES;235 15.4;8.4 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS;236 15.5;8.5 SMALL-SCALE HATCHERY LAY-OUT;237 15.6;8.6 GRAVID FEMALES/BROODSTOCK;237 15.7;8.7 NAUPLII;239 15.8;8.8 LARVAL REARING;239 15.9;8.9 REFERENCES;241 16;CHAPTER 9. Optimized Feeding Regimes in Shrimp Hatcheries;242 16.1;9.1 INTRODUCTION;242 16.2;9.2 DIET SELECTION CRITERIA;242 16.3;9.3 PHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION;255 16.4;9.4 RECOMMENDED FEEDING REGIMES;257 16.5;9.5 REFERENCES;259 17;CHAPTER 10. Shrimp Hatchery Design: Engineering Considerations;262 17.1;10.1 INTRODUCTION;262 17.2;10.2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS;264 17.3;10.3 PROCESS CRITERIA;265 17.4;10.4 SITE CONSIDERATIONS;267 17.5;10.5 LAYOUT;270 17.6;10.6 DESIGN OF WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS;273 17.7;10.7 DESIGN OF SEAWATER PROCESSING EQUIPMENT;276 17.8;10.8 DESIGN OF HATCHERY SUPPORT SYSTEMS;280 17.9;10.9 DESIGN OF HATCHERY PRODUCTION SUB-SYSTEMS;281 17.10;10.10 OPERATIONAL PHILOSOPHY AND POLICIES;289 17.11;10.11 OPERATIONAL PROBLEM AREAS;294 17.12;10.12 SUMMARY COMMANDMENTS FOR HATCHERY SEAWATER SYSTEMS;298 17.13;10.13 REFERENCES;300 18;CHAPTER 11. Use of One-Liter Imhoff Cones in Larviculture Production;304 18.1;11.1 INTRODUCTION;304 18.2;11.2 DESCRIPTION OF CONE CULTURE APPARATUS;309 18.3;11.3 METHODOLOGY FOR CONE CULTURE;310 18.4;11.4 REFERENCES;316 19;CHAPTER 12. Penaeid PL Harvest, Transport, Acclimation and Stocking;318 19.1;12.1 INTRODUCTION;318 19.2;12.2 PL HARVEST AT THE HATCHERY;318 19.3;12.3 PL TRANSPORT TO FARMS;324 19.4;12.4 ACCLIMATION;331 19.5;12.5 REFERENCES;336 20;CHAPTER 13. Intensification of Penaeid Nursery Systems;338 20.1;13.1 INTROD
UCTION;338 20.2;13.2 INTENSIFICATION OF NURSERY PONDS;339 20.3;13.3 INTENSIVE NURSERY RACEWAYS;344 20.4;13.4 SUMMARY AND ECONOMIC REVIEW;354 20.5;13.5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS;357 20.6;13.6 REFERENCES;357 21;CHAPTER 14. Penaeid Growout Systems: An Overview;362 21.1;14.1 INTRODUCnON;362 21.2;14.2 PRODUCTION LEVEL;365 21.3;14.3 STOCKING;365 21.4;14.4 FEED;366 21.5;14.5 WATER;367 21.6;14.6 POND SIZE;367 21.7;14.7 AERATION;367 21.8;14.8 POND DEPTH;367 21.9;14.9 SURVIVAL;368 21.10;14.10 ENERGY;368 21.11;14.11 MANAGEMENT AND LABOR;368 21.12;14.12 DISEASE;368 21.13;14.13 PROFITS;369 21.14;14.14 REFERENCES;369 22;CHAPTER 15. Penaeid Extensive Growout Systems;372 22.1;15.1 INTRODUCTION;372 22.2;15.2 WATER EXCHANGE;374 22.3;15.3 CONTROL GATES;375 22.4;15.4 TAIWANESE EXTENSIVE PONDS;376 22.5;15.5 PHILIPPINE AND INDONESIAN EXTENSIVE PONDS;377 22.6;15.6 THAI EXTENSIVE PONDS;381 22.7;15.7 BANGLADESHI AND INDIAN EXTENSIVE PONDS;382 22.8;15.8 ECUADOREAN EXTENSIVE PONDS;383 22.9;15.9 SUMMARY;384 22.10;15.10 REFERENCES;384 23;CHAPTER 16. Penaeid Semi-intensive Growout Systems;386 23.1;16.1 INTRODUCTION;386 23.2;16.2 ECUADOREAN SEMI-INTENSIVE PONDS;386 23.3;16.3 THAI SEMI-INTENSIVE PONDS;391 23.4;16.4 PHILIPPINE SEMI-INTENSIVE PONDS;391 23.5;16.5 INTENSIFICATION OF EXTENSIVE TO SEMI-INTENSIVECULTURE;392 23.6;16.6. REFERENCES;397 24;CHAPTER 17. Penaeid Intensive Growout Systems;398 24.1;17.1 INTRODUCTION;398 24.2;17.2 TAIWANESE INTENSIVE PONDS;398 24.3;17.3 JAPANESE INTENSIVE CULTURE;405 24.4;17.4 REFERENCES;407 25;CHAPTER 18. Penaeid Ultra-intensive Growout Systems;408 25.1;18.1 INTRODUCTION;408 25.2;18.2 ROUND POND ULTRA-INTENSIVE CULTURE;410 25.3;18.3 MOE ULTRA-INTENSIVE CULTURE;411 25.4;18.4 INTENSIFICATION OF TAIWANESE CULTURE;412 25.5;18.5 RISKS;414 25.6;18.6 REFERENCES;415 26;CHAPTER 19. Pond Harvesting Techniques;416 26.1;19.1 INTRODUCTION;416 26.2;19.2 PARTIAL HARVEST;419 26.3;19.3 COMPLETE HARVEST;426 26.4;19.4 REFERENCES;431 27;CHAPTER 20. Shrimp Pond Engineering Considerations;432
27.1;20.1 INTRODUCTION;432 27.2;20.2 SITE SELECTION;433 27.3;20.3 POND DESIGN;434 27.4;20.4 POND CONSTRUCTION;439 27.5;20.5 POND MAINTENANCE AND WATER MANAGEMENT;442 27.6;20.6 REFERENCES;445 28;CHAPTER 21. Pond Dynamic Processes;448 28.1;21.1 INTRODUCTION;448 28.2;21.2 TROPHIC DYNAMICS AND NUTRIENT CYCLES;448 28.3;21.3 OXYGEN DYNAMICS;453 28.4;21.4 REFERENCES;471 29;CHAPTER 22. Water Circulation, Aeration and Other Management Practices;474 29.1;22.1 INTRODUCTION;474 29.2;22.2 POND CIRCULATION;482 29.3;22.3 POND AERATION;485 29.4;22.4 MINIMUM OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF SHRIMP;498 29.5;22.5 AERATOR SIZING;501 29.6;22.6 WATER EXCHANGE;506 29.7;22.7 SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT;508 29.8;22.9 REFER;510 30;CHAPTER 23. Pond Monitoring and Management;514 30.1;23.1 INTRODUCTION;514 30.2;23.2 ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES;514 30.3;23.3 POND MONITORING;517 30.4;23.4 POND MANAGEMENT;522 30.5;23 5 REFERENCES;529 31;CHAPTER 24. Penaeid Temperature and Salinity Responses;532 31.1;24.1 INTRODUCTION;532 31.2;24.2 TEMPERATURE EFFECTS;534 31.3;24.3 SALINITY EFFECTS;542 31.4;24.4 TEMPERATURE-SALINITY INTERACTION;547 31.5;24.5 CONCLUSIONS;549 31.6;24.6 REFERENCES;550 32;CHAPTER 25. Penaeid Shrimp Nutrition;552 32.1;25.1 INTRODUCTION;552 32.2;25.2 DIGESTIBILITY;553 32.3;25.3 PROTEIN;556 32.4;25.4 ENERGY;560 32.5;25.5 LIPID;560 32.6;25.6 CARBOHYDRATE;564 32.7;25.7 FIBER;565 32.8;25.8 VITAMINS;565 32.9;25.9 MINERALS;571 32.10;25.10 FEED INGREDIENTS;575 32.11;25.11 FEED ADDITIVES;578 32.12;25.12 LEAST-COST FEED FORMULATIONS;581 32.13;25.12 REFERENCES;583 33;CHAPTER 26. Penaeid Virus Diseases of the Shrimp Culture Industry of the Americas;586 33.1;26.1 INTRODUCTION;586 33.2;26.2 DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES;586 33.3;26.3 HOSTS AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION;598 33.4;26.4 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS;601 33.5;26.5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS;603 33.6;26.6 REFERENCES;603 34;CHAPTER 27. Penaeid Markets and Economics;606 34.1;27.1 INTRODUCTION;606 34.2;27.2 PRODUCTION ECONOMICS;606 34.3;27.3 METHODS OF ANALYSIS;612 34.4;27.4 SHRIMP MARK
ETING;614 34.5;27.5 CONCLUSION;619 34.6;27.6 REFERENCES;620 35;CHAPTER 28. Supply Relations and Costs of Shrimp Mariculture and Shrimp Fisheries;622 35.1;28.1 INTRODUCTION;622 35.2;28.2 COST OF SHRIMP FARMING;625 35.3;28.3 COST OF SHRIMP FISHING;629 35.4;28.4 COST COMPARISONS OF SHRIMP FARMING AND FISHING;630 35.5;28.7 CONCLUSIONS;636 35.6;28.8 REFERENCES;637 36;CHAPTER 29. An Overview of Asian Marine Shrimp Culture;640 36.1;29.1 INTRODUCTION;640 36.2;29.2 CULTURED SPECIES;640 36.3;29.3 STATUS OF SHRIMP CULTURE BY COUNTRY;642 36.4;29.4 MANGROVE FOREST CONVERSIONS;653 36.5;29.5 SEED PRODUCTION;654 36.6;29.6 PRICE STABILITIES AND MARKETS;655 36.7;29.7 REFERENCES;657 37;CHAPTER 30. Shrimp Culture Industry in Japan;658 37.1;30.1 INTRODUCTION;658 37.2;30.2 SHRIMP CULTURE OVERVIEW;658 37.3;30.3 CULTURE TECHNIQUE;662 37.4;30.4 PACKING AND MARKETING;666 37.5;30.5 COST ANALYSIS;667 37.6;30.6 MARKET TREND AND PROSPECT;667 37.7;30.7 SUMMARY;669 37.8;30.8 REFERENCES;669 38;CHAPTER 31. Marine Prawn Culture Industry of Taiwan;670 38.1;31.1 INTRODUCTION;670 38.2;31.2 COMMERCIALLY CULTURED SPECIES;670 38.3;31.3 CULTURE AREA;677 38.4;31.4 HISTORY AND STATUS OF HATCHERIES;679 38.5;31.5 HISTORY AND STATUS OF FEED DEVELOPMENT;682 38.6;31.6 CULTURE TECHNIQUES;684 38.7;31.7 FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR THE TAIWAN PRAWN INDUSTRY;689 38.8;31.8 REFERENCES;691 39;CHAPTER 32. Shrimp Culture Industry in China;694 39.1;32.1 INTRODUCTION;694 39.2;32.2 SHRIMP SPECIES CULTURED;694 39.3;32.3 SHRIMP CULTURE HISTORY IN CHINA;698 39.4;32.4 PENAEUS CHINENSIS REPRODUCTION AND LARVICULTURE;700 39.5;32.5 PENAEUS CHINENSIS POND GROWOUT;702 39.6;32.6 HARVESTING AND PROCESSING;704 39.7;32.7 SUMMARY;705 39.8;32.8 REFERENCES;705 40;CHAPTER 33. Shrimp Culture Industry in Thailand;708 40.1;33.1 INTRODUCTION;708 40.2;33.2 PRESENT SHRIMP PRODUCTION AND FUTURE TREND;708 40.3;33.3 PRESENT SHRIMP EXPORT AND FUTURE TREND;711 40.4;33.4 CONCLUSIONS;716 40.5;33.5 REFERENCES;716 41;CHAPTER 34. Prawn/Shrimp Culture Industry in th
e Philippines;718 41.1;34.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND;718 41.2;34.2 COUNTRY PROFILE;720 41.3;34.3 SEED SUPPLY;724 41.4;34.4 GROWOUT;725 41.5;34.5 PROBLEMS;734 41.6;34.6 RECOMENDATIONS;739 41.7;34.7 CONCLUSION;742 41.8;34.8 REFERENCES;742 42;CHAPTER 35. Shrimp Culture Industry in Vietnam;746 42.1;35.1 INTRODUCTION;746 42.2;35.2 GEOGRAPHICAL AND PHYSICAL CONDITIONS;747 42.3;35.3 SHRIMP SPECIES: COMPOSITION AND DISTRIBUTION;751 42.4;35.4 TRADITIONAL AND EXTENSIVE AQUACULTURE;751 42.5;35.5 AQUACULTÜRE PRACTICES;757 42.6;35.6 SHRIMP CULTURE INTENSIFICATION;764 42.7;35.7 MARKETING;769 42.8;35.8 CONCLUSION: SOME PROSPECTS FOR THE FUTURE;770 42.9;35.9 REFERENCES;771 43;CHAPTER 36. Shrimp Culture Industry in Australia;774 43.1;36.1 INTRODUCTION;774 43.2;36.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT;774 43.3;36.3 CULTURED SPECIES;776 43.4;36.4 PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY;777 43.5;36.5 ARTIFICIAL FEEDS;780 43.6;36.6 ADVANTAGES AND CONSTRAINTS;780 43.7;36.7 CONCLUSION;783 43.8;36.8 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS;783 43.9;36.9 REFERENCES;784 44;CHAPTER 37. Overview of Shrimp Farming in the Western Hemisphere;788 44.1;37.1 HISTORY;788 44.2;37.2 SPECIES;790 44.3;37.3 SEEDSTOCK SOURCE;791 44.4;37.4 GROWOUT METHODS;792 44.5;37.5 PRODUCTION AND MARKETING;793 44.6;37.6 FINANCIAL AND GOVERNMENTAL SUPPORT;794 44.7;37.7 ECONOMIC IMP ACT;795 44.8;37.8 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT;796 44.9;37.9 REGULATIONS;796 44.10;37.10 ACTIVITY BY AREA;797 44.11;37.11 CONCLUSION;798 44.12;37.12 REFERENCES;799 45;CHAPTER 38. Shrimp Culture Industry in Ecuador;800 45.1;38.1 INTRODUCTION;800 45.2;38.2 HISTORY OF SHRIMP CULTURE INDUSTRY;800 45.3;38.3 NAUPLIUS PRODUCTION;801 45.4;38.4 PL PRODUCTION;806 45.5;38.5 POND PRODUCTION;813 45.6;38.6 FEED;826 45.7;38.7 DISEASE;827 45.8;38.8 PROCESSING;829 45.9;38.9 ESTABLISHMENT OF A SUPPORT INDUSTRY;830 45.10;38.10 FUTURE SHRIMP INDUSTRY IN ECUADOR;830 45.11;38.11 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS;832 45.12;38.12 REFERENCES;832 46;CHAPTER 39. Shrimp Culture in the United States;834 46.1;39.1 INTRODUCTION;834 46.2;39.2 ENVIRONMENTAL
CONDITIONS;834 46.3;39.3 REGULATORY CONSTRAINTS;837 46.4;39.4 SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS;841 46.5;39.5 U.S. SHRIMP CAPTURE FISHERIES;843 46.6;39.6 TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT;844 46.7;39.7 ECONOMIC VIABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL;850 46.8;39.8 REFERENCES;850 47;CHAPTER 40. Future of World Shrimp Culture;856 47.1;40.1 INTRODUCTION;856 47.2;40.2 SHRIMP CULTURE SYSTEMS;857 47.3;40.3 POND DYNAMICS;859 47.4;40.4 MICROCOMPUTER APPLICATIONS;860 47.5;40.5 OCEAN SHRIMP FISHERIES;860 47.6;40.6 PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION;861 47.7;40.7 REPRODUCTION AND SEED PRODUCTION;861 47.8;40.8 NUTRITION AND FEEDS;862 47.9;40.9 SELECTION AND GENETICS;862 47.10;40.10 DISEASE CONTROL;863 47.11;40.11 GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS AND POLICIES;864 47.12;40.12 COUNTRY AND REGIONAL PRODUCTION TRENDS;865 47.13;40.13 MARKET DEVELOPMENT;867 47.14;40.14 LITERATURE CITED;867 48;Index;870


EAN: 9781483291048
Untertitel: Marine Shrimp Culture: Principles and Practices. 200:Adobe eBook. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Elsevier Science
Erscheinungsdatum: Oktober 2013
Format: pdf eBook
Kopierschutz: Adobe DRM
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