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Iron-Formation: Facts and Problems

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April 2000

Beschreibung

Beschreibung

Iron-Formation: Facts and Problems

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1;Front Cover;1 2;Iron-Formation: Facts and Problems;4 3;Copyright Page;5 4;Contents;10 5;Foreword;6 6;Contributing Authors;8 7;CHAPTER 1.INTRODUCTION;16 7.1;Origin, purpose, and scope of this volume;16 7.2;Classification and nomenclature of iron-formation;17 7.3;Acknowledgements;26 7.4;References;26 8;CHAPTER 2. ANIMIKIE BASIN, LAKE SUPERIOR REGION. U.S.A.;28 8.1;Introduction;28 8.2;Regional geologic setting;29 8.3;Geochronology;34 8.4;Documentation of the basin;35 8.5;Description of the basin;38 8.6;The iron-formations and their depositional environments;53 8.7;Secondary enrichment deposits;70 8.8;References;73 9;CHAPTER 3. THE HAMERSLEY BASIN;82 9.1;Introduction;82 9.2;Documentation;83 9.3;Location, area, shape, and outcrop limits;85 9.4;Stratigraphy;88 9.5;The iron-formations;98 9.6;Structure;110 9.7;Metamorphism;111 9.8;Tectonic development of the basin;113 9.9;Surface configuration and depositional conditions;130 9.10;Mineral deposits;134 9.11;Acknowledgements;135 9.12;References;136 10;CHAPTER 4. PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL SETTING OF IRON-FORMATIONS IN THE DEPOSITIONAL BASIN OF THE TRANSVAAL SUPERGROUP, SOUTH AFRICA;144 10.1;Introduction;144 10.2;Documentation of the depository;146 10.3;Structure and metamorphism of the strata;146 10.4;Age;153 10.5;Nomenclature;153 10.6;Tectono-sedimentary and stratigraphic setting of the iron-formations;155 10.7;Schmidtsdrif Subgroup;160 10.8;CampbellrandMalmani carbonate sequence;164 10.9;Asbesheuwels Subgroup;165 10.10;Koegas Subgroup;177 10.11;Rooihoogte and Timeball Hill Formations;182 10.12;Makganyene Diamictite;183 10.13;Voëlwater Subgroup;185 10.14;Manganore Iron Formation;192 10.15;Vertical distribution of iron and manganese in the Transvaal Supergroup;194 10.16;Conclusion;196 10.17;Acknowledgements;201 10.18;References;201 11;CHAPTER 5. THE KRIVOY ROG BASIN;214 11.1;Introduction;214 11.2;History of geological research;214 11.3;Geological structure of the basin;215 11.4;The iron-formations;227 11.5;Metamorphism;236 11.6;Gen
etic model for Precambrian banded iron-formations;242 11.7;Iron ore deposits;246 11.8;References;250 12;CHAPTER 6. IRON-FORMATION IN FOLD BELTS MARGINAL TO THE UNGAVA CRATON;254 12.1;Introduction;254 12.2;History and documentation of geology;259 12.3;Description of basins;260 12.4;Depositional environments;283 12.5;References and selected bibliography;289 13;CHAPTER 7. THE NABBERU BASIN OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA;296 13.1;Introduction;296 13.2;Documentation of the basin;297 13.3;Description of the basin;299 13.4;Depositional environment;317 13.5;Depositional facies model;320 13.6;Acknowledgements;321 13.7;References;322 14;CHAPTER 8. PART A: A CONTRIBUTION ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PRECAMBRIAN IRON-FORMATIONS;326 14.1;Introduction;326 14.2;Systematic studies;327 14.3;Discussion and conclusions;338 14.4;Acknowledgements;342 14.5;References;343 15;PART B: RARE EARTH ELEMENTS IN IRON-FORMATION;346 15.1;Introduction;346 15.2;REE distribution in iron-formation;350 15.3;Evolution of Precambrian oxidation states;351 15.4;Mineralogical facies;354 15.5;Diagenesis;355 15.6;Volcanic input to iron-formations;356 15.7;Summary;356 15.8;References;358 16;PART C: OXYGEN ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY OF IRON-FORMATION;360 16.1;Introduction;360 16.2;Proterozoic iron-formation;362 16.3;Archean iron-formation;369 16.4;Discussion;370 16.5;Acknowledgement;371 16.6;References;371 17;CHAPTER 9. THE PALAEONTOLOGY AND PALAEOECOLOGY OF PRECAMBRIAN IRON-FORMATIONS;374 17.1;Introduction;374 17.2;Palaeontology;378 17.3;Palaeoecology;390 17.4;Microbial deposition of iron-formation;393 17.5;Conclusions;394 17.6;Acknowledgements;395 17.7;References;396 18;CHAPTER 10. BANDED IRONFORMATION A GRADUALISTS DILEMMA;402 18.1;Introduction;402 18.2;What needs to be explained;403 18.3;Assumptions and constraints;404 18.4;The seminal sources;405 18.5;The original model;406 18.6;Subsequent modification of the model;407 18.7;Testable corollaries of the model;409 18.8;Findings relevant to a test of the model;410 18.9;Curr
ent status of the model as it relates to BIF;413 18.10;References;415 19;CHAPTER 11. DIAGENESIS AND METAMORPHISM OF PRECAMBRIAN BANDED IRON-FORMATIONS;418 19.1;Introduction;418 19.2;Major-element geochemistry of banded iron-formations;419 19.3;Diagenetic to very low-grade metamorphic assemblages;423 19.4;Physical and chemical conditions of iron-formation diagenesis and very low-grade metamorphism;439 19.5;Medium-grade metamorphic assemblages;441 19.6;Physical and chemical conditions of medium-grade metamorphism;450 19.7;High-grade metamorphic assemblages;451 19.8;Physical and chemical conditions of high-grade metamorphism;458 19.9;Theoretical evaluation of the conditions of metamorphism of iron-formations;462 19.10;Acknowledgements;465 19.11;References;466 20;CHAPTER 12. DISTRIBUTION OF BANDED IRON-FORMATION IN SPACE AND TIME;472 20.1;Introduction;472 20.2;Age and tonnage assessments;472 20.3;Temporal and spatial distribution;475 20.4;Significance of peaks in the depositional record;484 20.5;Acknowledgement;486 20.6;References;487 21;Chapter 13. CHEMICAL FACTORS IN THE DEPOSITION AND DIAGENESIS OF BANDED IRON-FORMATION;492 21.1;Introduction;492 21.2;The Dales Gorge Member;493 21.3;The nature of the source solutions;494 21.4;The primary precipitation;499 21.5;The primary sediment and its diagenesis;508 21.6;Conclusion;511 21.7;Acknowledgements;511 21.8;References;511 22;CHAPTER 14. SUPERGENE ALTERATION OF BANDED IRON-FORMATION;514 22.1;Introduction;514 22.2;Physical weathering;515 22.3;Chemical weathering;516 22.4;Discussion;529 22.5;Conclusion;532 22.6;Acknowledgements;533 22.7;References;533 23;Subject Index;536


EAN: 9780080869056
Untertitel: 200:Adobe eBook. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Elsevier Science
Erscheinungsdatum: April 2000
Seitenanzahl: 557 Seiten
Format: pdf eBook
Kopierschutz: Adobe DRM
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