Epidemiological and Molecular Aspects on Cholera

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November 2010



Though cholera is an ancient disease, its perennial occurrence in several parts of the world has attracted many researches to find ways and means to combat the disease. The prevailing seventh pandemic cholera is dominating since 1961, but the dimension of the disease has taken several silhouettes, as the genetic structure and functions of the Vibrio cholerae has changed to a great extent. Several recent studies have shown that transformation of the pathogen at the molecular level has ameliorated several cholera outbreaks and epidemics of with successive new clones of V. cholerae. This comprehensive compilation, written by eminent international researchers reviews the epidemiology of cholera in Africa, Asia, Russia and Latin Americas. The other chapters contributed by acclaimed authors cover various aspects on evolution, polysaccaharide biosynthesis, SXT element, integrons, small molecule signalling systems, flagellar synthesis, filamentous phages, pathogenic role of proteases and hemolysin, and other putative virulence factors. In addition, ecology of V. cholerae and management of cholera were also discussed in detail. This book will be good source of information to all researchers with interests in infectious diseases, microbiology and molecular biology.


1;Preface;5 2;Contents;7 3;Contributors;9 4;1 General Introduction;12 5;2 Asiatic Cholera: Mole Hills and Mountains;16 5.1;2.1 Introduction;16 5.2;2.2 Cholera in the Indian Subcontinent;17 5.3;2.3 Other Asian Countries;19 5.4;2.4 Association Between V. cholerae and Parasites;20 5.5;2.5 The O139 Cholera;20 5.6;2.6 Antimicrobial Resistance;22 5.7;2.7 Phage Typing of V. cholerae O1 and O139;23 5.8;2.8 Molecular Epidemiology;24 5.9;2.9 Seroepidemiology;27 5.10;2.10 Prospects of Cholera Vaccines in Asia;28 5.11;2.11 Traditional Medicine and Food Habits for Prevention of Cholera;29 5.12;2.12 Control Measures and Health-Care Systems;29 5.13;2.13 Conclusion;31 5.14;References;31 6;3 Endemic and Epidemic Cholera in Africa;41 6.1;3.1 Introduction;41 6.2;3.2 Epidemics and Outbreaks;42 6.3;3.3 Risk Factors and Modes of Transmission of Cholera;44 6.4;3.4 The Organism;49 6.5;3.5 Seroepidemiology;50 6.6;3.6 Use of Antimicrobials;50 6.7;3.7 Molecular Findings;52 6.8;3.8 Strategies to Curtail Cholera Outbreaks;52 6.9;3.9 Conclusions;53 6.10;References;54 7;4 Phenotypic and Molecular Characteristics of Epidemic and Non-epidemic Vibrio cholerae Strains Isolated in Russia and Certain Countriesof Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS);61 7.1;4.1 Introduction;61 7.2;4.2 Toxigenic (CTX+) V. cholerae Strains;63 7.2.1;4.2.1 O1 Serogroup;63; Classical Strains;63; El Tor Strains;64 7.2.2;4.2.2 O139 Strains;68 7.2.3;4.2.3 CTX+ Non-O1, Non-O139 Strains;70 7.3;4.3 Non-choleragenic Strains;72 7.3.1;4.3.1 Pre-CTX+ O1 and Non-O1, Non-O139 Strains;72 7.3.2;4.3.2 CTX /Pre-CTX O1 Strains;73 7.3.3;4.3.3 CTX /Pre-CTX Non-O1, Non-O139 Strains;76 7.4;4.4 Environmental Strains: Harmless Refugees or Ambushing Bandits?;78 7.5;4.5 Conclusions;79 7.6;References;80 8;5 The Re-emergence of Cholera in the Americas;89 8.1;5.1 Introduction;89 8.2;5.2 Epidemiology of Cholera in Americas;90 8.3;5.3 The Environmental Aspects of Cholera;93 8.4;5.4 Management of Cholera and Other Related
Diarrheal Infections;95 8.5;5.5 Molecular Characterization of V. cholerae;95 8.6;5.6 Vibrio cholerae Non-O1 Associated with Cholera-RelatedDiarrhea;101 8.7;References;102 9;6 The Evolution of Vibrio cholerae as a Pathogen;106 9.1;6.1 Introduction;106 9.2;6.2 Pathogenesis;107 9.3;6.3 Emergence of Endemic and Pandemic Vibrio cholerae;109 9.4;6.4 Horizontal Transfer of Vibrio cholerae Virulence Genes;110 9.5;6.5 Reactogenicity of Nontoxigenic Vaccine Prototypes in Humans;112 9.6;6.6 The Discovery of Zot and Ace;112 9.7;6.7 Other Toxins and Virulence Loci in the Evolution of Vibrio cholerae ;115 9.8;6.8 Conclusion;117 9.9;References;118 10;7 Molecular Epidemiology of Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae ;124 10.1;7.1 Introduction;124 10.2;7.2 Epidemiology of Cholera: Overview;126 10.3;7.3 Molecular Epidemiological Tools;126 10.4;7.4 Molecular Epidemiology of Cholera;127 10.4.1;7.4.1 Clonal Diversity of Epidemic Strains in Bangladesh and India;128 10.4.2;7.4.2 Changing Antibiotic Resistance Among Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae ;130 10.5;7.5 Molecular Basis for Clonal Diversity;131 10.6;7.6 Influence of Clonal Diversity on the Epidemiology of Cholera;132 10.7;References;133 11;8 Diversity and Genetic Basis of Polysaccharide Biosynthesis in Vibrio cholerae;137 11.1;8.1 Introduction;138 11.2;8.2 Lipopolysaccharide (LPS);139 11.2.1;8.2.1 Lipid A;139; Composition and Structure of Lipid A;139; Genetics of Lipid A Biosynthesis;140 11.2.2;8.2.2 Core Oligosaccharide;140; Composition and Structure of Core Oligosaccharide;140; Genetics of Core Biosynthesis;140 11.2.3;8.2.3 O-Polysaccharide (O-Antigen);141; Serogroup O1;142; Serogroup O139;145; Serogroup O22;147; Serogroup O37;149; Serogroup O31;150 11.3;8.3 Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) in Creation of O-Antigen Diversity;151 11.3.1;8.3.1 Mechanism of HGT-Evidence for Homologous Recombination Events;154 11
.3.2;8.3.2 Vehicles for HGT of O-Antigen/Capsule Regions;154 11.4;8.4 Exopolysaccharide (EPS)/Vibrio Polysaccharide (VPS)/Rugose Polysaccharide;155 11.4.1;8.4.1 V. cholerae Generates Colonial Variants Termed Smooth and Rugose;155 11.4.2;8.4.2 The Rugose Variant Has an Increased Capacity to Survive Biocides and Environmental Stresses;156 11.4.3;8.4.3 The Rugose Variant Has Increased Capacity to Form Biofilms;156 11.4.4;8.4.4 EPS/VPS Production;156 11.4.5;8.4.5 VPS Biosynthesis and Analysis of the Functions of the vps Genes;157 11.4.6;8.4.6 VPS Cluster Is Unique to V. cholerae ;158 11.4.7;8.4.7 Regulators of VPS Production;158 11.4.8;8.4.8 Type II Secretion System in VPS Export;160 11.5;8.5 Concluding Remarks;161 11.6;References;162 12;9 Significance of the SXT/R391 Family of Integrating Conjugative Elements in Vibrio cholerae;169 12.1;9.1 Introduction;169 12.2;9.2 Discovery of SXTMO10 in a Novel Epidemic-CausingSerogroup of Vibrio cholerae;171 12.3;9.3 Apparent Dissemination of SXTMO10-Related ICEs inEpidemic Vibrio cholerae;172 12.4;9.4 The Origin of SXTMO10-Related ICEs;177 12.5;9.5 SXT/R391 Family Members Possess a Large Core Set of Conserved Genes;178 12.6;9.6 SXT/R391 Family Members Also Possess Variable Regions;179 12.7;9.7 Conjugative Transfer and Regulation of the ICEs of the SXT/R391 Family;180 12.7.1;9.7.1 Excision and Integration;180 12.7.2;9.7.2 Conjugative Transfer;181 12.7.3;9.7.3 Conjugative Transfer Entry Exclusion;182 12.7.4;9.7.4 Regulation;183 12.8;9.8 Do ICEs of the SXT/R391 Family Mobilize Vibrio cholerae Virulence Determinants?;184 12.9;9.9 Concluding Remarks;187 12.10;References;188 13;10 Small Molecule Signaling Systemsin Vibrio cholerae;193 13.1;10.1 Introduction;194 13.2;10.2 Intracellular Small Molecule Signaling Systems;194 13.2.1;10.2.1 Intracellular cAMP-Mediated Regulation in Vibrio cholerae;195 13.2.2;10.2.2 Guanosine 3'-Diphosphate 5'-Triphosphateand Guanosine 3',5'-Bis(diphosphate) [(p)ppGpp]as Cellular Alarmones in Vibrio cholerae;1
96; Role of (p)ppGpp in Vibrio cholerae ;197 13.2.3;10.2.3 Bis-(3,5)-cyclic-di-guanosine Monophosphate (c-di-GMP);198; c-di-GMP-Mediated Signaling in Vibrio cholerae ;198; c-di-GMP and In Vivo Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae ;200 13.3;10.3 Extracellular Quorum Sensing in Vibrio cholerae ;203 13.3.1;10.3.1 Quorum-Sensing Molecules and Pathways in Vibrio cholerae ;203 13.3.2;10.3.2 Quorum Sensing-Regulated Virulence Gene Expression and Biofilm Formation in Vibrio cholerae;204 13.3.3;10.3.3 Relationship Between Quorum Sensing and c-di-GMP in Vibrio cholerae ;205 13.4;10.4 Concluding Remarks;205 13.5;References;206 14;11 Vibrio cholerae Flagellar Synthesisand Virulence;210 14.1;11.1 Introduction;210 14.2;11.2 The Vibrio cholerae Flagellar Transcription Hierarchy;211 14.3;11.3 Motility and Virulence;214 14.4;11.4 Chemotaxis and Virulence;215 14.5;11.5 Motility and Biofilm Formation;216 14.6;11.6 Summary;216 14.7;References;217 15;12 Filamentous Phages of Vibrio choleraeO1 and O139;220 15.1;12.1 Introduction;220 15.2;12.2 Isolation of Filamentous Phages from Stool Samples;221 15.3;12.3 Typing and Subtyping of Filamentous Phages;221 15.4;12.4 Filamentous Phages as a Tool for Molecular Epidemiology of V. cholerae;221 15.5;12.5 Receptor for Filamentous Phages fs1 and fs2;222 15.6;12.6 Role of Filamentous Phages in Pathogenesis of V. cholerae;222 15.7;12.7 Genomic Organization of fs2;223 15.8;12.8 att Site-Containing Region of fs2;224 15.9;12.9 Strategies for Development of an Effective Cholera Vaccine Phase Variation of V. cholerae;224 15.10;12.10 Development of Hyperfimbriate Strains of V. cholerae O1;226 15.11;References;227 16;13 Pathogenic Potential of Non-O1, Non-O139 Vibrio cholerae;229 16.1;13.1 Introduction;229 16.2;13.2 Ecology and Epidemiology;230 16.3;13.3 Strain Diversity;231 16.4;13.4 Toxins and Toxigenic Factors;232 16.5;13.5 CTX Prophage (Genetic Element) and VPI;234 16.6;13.6 Pathogenic Potential;235 16.7;
13.7 Evolutionary Perspective;237 16.8;13.8 Conclusion;240 16.9;References;241 17;14 Proteases Produced by Vibrio choleraeand Other Pathogenic Vibrios:Pathogenic Roles and Expression;250 17.1;14.1 Introduction;251 17.2;14.2 Vibrio cholerae Protease;251 17.2.1;14.2.1 Hemagglutinin/Protease (HA/P);251 17.2.2;14.2.2 Quorum-Sensing Regulation of HA/P Production;254 17.2.3;14.2.3 Other Proteases of Vibrio cholerae;256 17.3;14.3 Proteases Produced by Other Vibrios;256 17.3.1;14.3.1 Vibrio vulnificus Protease (VVP);256 17.3.2;14.3.2 Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Others;257 17.4;14.4 Conclusions;258 17.5;References;259 18;15 Toxins of Vibrio choleraeand Their Role in Inflammation,Pathogenesis, and Immunomodulation;264 18.1;15.1 Introduction;264 18.2;15.2 Cholera Enterotoxin;266 18.2.1;15.2.1 Immune Modulation by Cholera Toxin;267; B and T Cells;268; Monocytes and Macrophages;268; Dendritic Cells;268 18.3;15.3 The Other Toxins of Vibrio cholerae;269 18.3.1;15.3.1 Zona Occludens Toxin (Zot);269 18.3.2;15.3.2 Accessory Cholera Enterotoxin (Ace);269 18.3.3;15.3.3 WO7 Toxin;269 18.3.4;15.3.4 Hemolysin--Cytolysin;270 18.3.5;15.3.5 Non-membrane Damaging Cytotoxin (NMDCY);271 18.3.6;15.3.6 Shiga-Like Toxin;271 18.3.7;15.3.7 Heat-Stable Enterotoxin (ST);271 18.3.8;15.3.8 New Cholera Toxin (NCT);272 18.3.9;15.3.9 Secreted CHO Cell-Elongating Protein (S-CEP);272 18.3.10;15.3.10 Repeat in Toxin (RTX);272 18.4;15.4 Role of Additional Toxins in Inflammation and Immunomodulation in Cholera Disease;273 18.5;References;275 19;16 Vibrio cholerae Hemolysin: An EnigmaticPore-Forming Toxin;281 19.1;16.1 Introduction;281 19.2;16.2 Expression, Isolation, and Purification;282 19.3;16.3 Structure and Biophysical Characteristics;283 19.4;16.4 Receptor Specificity, Membrane Binding, and Bilayer Insertion;287 19.5;16.5 Interaction of VCC with Nonerythroid Cells: Relevance to Disease;289 19.6;16.6 Conclusion;290 19.7;References;290 20;17 Integron-Mediate
d AntimicrobialResistance in Vibrio cholerae;294 20.1;17.1 Introduction;294 20.2;17.2 General Characteristics and Classes of Integrons;295 20.3;17.3 Mobile Integrons (MIs);296 20.4;17.4 Superintegrons (SIs);298 20.5;17.5 Epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae with Class 1 Integrons;299 20.5.1;17.5.1 South-east Asia;299 20.5.2;17.5.2 South Asia: India;301 20.5.3;17.5.3 Africa;303 20.5.4;17.5.4 Europe;305 20.5.5;17.5.5 South America;305 20.6;17.6 Complex Class 1 and Class 2 Integrons in Vibrio cholerae;305 20.7;17.7 Class 1 Integrons in Other Vibrios;306 20.8;17.8 Conclusion;307 20.9;References;308 21;18 Aquatic Realm and Cholera;314 21.1;18.1 History of Cholera;315 21.1.1;18.1.1 Old Beliefs and Myths About Cholera;315 21.1.2;18.1.2 Historical Background and Global Occurrence of Cholera;315 21.2;18.2 Ecology of Vibrio cholerae;317 21.2.1;18.2.1 Environmental Factors Affecting the Organism;317 21.2.2;18.2.2 Biological Factors Affecting the Organism;318; Viable but Non-culturable State;318; Biofilm Formation;320; Rugosity and Colonial Opacity;321; Quorum Sensing;322; Chitinase and Chitin Utilization;324; Intracellular Existence;325 21.3;18.3 Detection of Vibrio cholerae from the Environments;325 21.3.1;18.3.1 Conventional Bacteriological Culture Methods;325 21.3.2;18.3.2 Colony Blot Lift and Hybridization with DNA Probes;326 21.3.3;18.3.3 Immunological Methods;327 21.3.4;18.3.4 Direct Detection of Vibrio cholerae by PCR;327 21.4;18.4 Prediction and Prevention of Cholera;329 21.4.1;18.4.1 Climatological Models for Prediction;329 21.4.2;18.4.2 Simple Methods for Prevention and Intervention of Cholera;331 21.5;18.5 Summary;333 21.6;References;334 22;19 Management of Cholera;343 22.1;19.1 Background;343 22.2;19.2 Clinical Presentations;345 22.3;19.3 Management;346 22.3.1;19.3.1 Management of Patients with 'No' Dehydration;347 22.3.2;19.3.2 Management of Patient with 'Some' Dehydra
tion;347 22.3.3;19.3.3 Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) Solution;348 22.3.4;19.3.4 Management of Patient with Severe Dehydration;349 22.3.5;19.3.5 Management with Antibiotic;350 22.3.6;19.3.6 Management of Vomiting;350 22.4;19.4 Feeding;351 22.5;19.5 Other Drugs or Agents;351 22.6;19.6 Complications;351 22.7;References;352 23;Subject Index;356



From the reviews:

'This book covers current epidemiological and molecular aspects of cholera. ' this book will be of value for researchers wishing up-to-date information on cholera. It is very obvious the book is most appropriate for researchers in cholera and other enteric diseases. ' The authors are recognized authorities in cholera research.' (Carlos E. Figueroa Castro, Doody's Review Service, January, 2010)

EAN: 9781603272650
Untertitel: 2011. Auflage. 10 schwarz-weiße Tabellen, Bibliographie. eBook. Sprache: Englisch. Dateigröße in MByte: 6.
Verlag: Springer New York
Erscheinungsdatum: November 2010
Seitenanzahl: xii372
Format: pdf eBook
Kopierschutz: Adobe DRM
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