Aspects of Explosives Detection

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Juli 2011



Detection and quantification of trace chemicals is a major thrust of analytical chemistry. In recent years much effort has been spent developing detection systems for priority pollutants. Less mature are the detections of substances of interest to law enforcement and security personnel:in particular explosives. This volume will discuss the detection of these, not only setting out the theoretical fundamentals, but also emphasizing the remarkable developments in the last decade. Terrorist events¿airplanes blown out of the sky (PanAm 103 over Lockerbie) and attacks on U.S. and European cities (Trade Center in New York and the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, railways in London and Madrid)--emphasize the danger of concealed explosives. However, since most explosives release little vapor, it was not possible to detect them by technology used on most organic substances. After PanAm 103 was downed over Scotland, the U.S. Congress requested automatic explosive detection equipment be placed in airports. This volume outlines the history of explosive detection research, the developments along the way, present day technologies, and what we think the future holds.
- Written by experts in the field who set out both the scientific issues and the practical context with authority
- Discusses and describes the threat
- Describes the theoretical background and practical applications of both trace and bulk explosives detection


1;Front Cover;1 2;Aspects of Explosives Detection;4 3;Copyright Page;5 4;Table of Contents;6 5;Preface;12 6;List of Contributors;14 7;Chapter 1 The Detection Problem;16 7.1;1 Explosive Detection Technology The Impetus;16 7.2;2 The Problem;18 7.3;3 Detection Technologies;19 8;Chapter 2 Explosives: The Threats and the Materials;26 8.1;1 Devices and Explosives;26 8.2;2 Fundamentals of Explosives;27 8.2.1;2.1 Usage of explosives;27 8.2.2;2.2 Detonation and deflagration;27 8.2.3;2.3 Primary and secondary explosives;27 8.2.4;2.4 Energy release, explosive output, and critical diameter;28 8.2.5;2.5 Chemistry of some common explosives;30 8.2.6;2.6 Military explosives;32 8.2.7;2.7 Plastic explosives;33 8.2.8;2.8 Commercial explosives;33 8.2.9;2.9 Propellants;34 8.2.10;2.10 Terrorist use of homemade explosives;35 8.2.11;2.11 Peroxide explosives;36 8.2.12;2.12 Exotic explosives;36 8.2.13;2.13 Energetic salts;37 8.2.14;2.14 Non-solid explosives;38 8.3;3 Implications for Detection;38 9;Chapter 3 Detection of Explosives by Dogs;42 9.1;1 Introduction;42 9.2;2 The Scientific Basis of Explosives Detection by Dogs;43 9.2.1;2.1 What do dogs detect?;44 9.2.2;2.2 Sensitivity;46 9.2.3;2.3 Specificity;47 9.2.4;2.4 Dynamic range;49 9.2.5;2.5 Generalization;49 9.2.6;2.6 Duty cycle;50 9.2.7;2.7 Robustness;51 9.3;3 Training, Evaluation and Maintenance;52 9.4;4 Conclusions;53 10;Chapter 4 Colorimetric Detection of Explosives;56 10.1;1 Introduction;56 10.2;2 Nitroaromatic Explosives;58 10.3;3 Nitrate Esters and Nitramines;60 10.4;4 Improvised Explosives Not Containing Nitro Groups;64 10.5;5 Peroxide-Based Explosives;64 10.6;6 Urea Nitrate;67 10.7;7 Field Tests;68 11;Chapter 5 Nuclear Technologies;74 11.1;1 Basis for Detection;74 11.2;2 Physics Underlying Nuclear Detection Methods;75 11.2.1;2.1 Detection principles;75 11.2.2;2.2 Neutron sources;80 11.2.3;2.3 Detectors;82 11.3;3 Survey of Neutron-Based Detection Approaches;87 11.3.1;3.1 Thermal neutron activation;87 11.3.2;3.2 Fast neutron activat
ion;88 11.3.3;3.3 Fast neutron-associated particle;90 11.3.4;3.4 Pulsed fast neutron transmission spectroscopy;91 11.3.5;3.5 Pulsed fast neutron analysis;93 11.4;4 Survey of Non-Neutron-Based Nuclear Detection Methods;95 11.4.1;4.1 Nuclear resonance absorption;95 11.4.2;4.2 Nuclear quadrupole resonance;96 11.4.3;4.3 Nuclear resonance fluorescence;97 11.5;5 Problems with the Use of Nuclear Techniques for Explosive Detection;98 11.5.1;5.1 Field deployment of neutron sources;98 11.5.2;5.2 Health hazards because of radiation;98 11.5.3;5.3 Material activation;99 11.5.4;5.4 Neutron shielding;99 11.5.5;5.5 Public perception of radiation;99 11.6;6 Summary;99 12;Chapter 6 X-ray Technologies;104 12.1;1 Introduction;104 12.2;2 X-ray Physics;105 12.2.1;2.1 Production of X-rays;105 12.2.2;2.2 Attenuation of X-rays;107 12.2.3;2.3 X-ray detectors;111 12.2.4;2.4 Dual-energy X-ray;112 12.2.5;2.5 Effective atomic number;115 12.3;3 History of X-Ray Screening Technology;117 12.3.1;3.1 Early history;118 12.3.2;3.2 Linear array X-ray scanners;119 12.3.3;3.3 Material discrimination;120 12.3.4;3.4 Automated detection;121 12.3.5;3.5 Other advancements in X-ray screening;124 12.3.6;3.6 Cargo scanners;125 12.4;4 X-Ray Inspection Systems;126 12.4.1;4.1 Conventional transmission;126 12.4.2;4.2 Dual-energy transmission systems;131 12.4.3;4.3 Multi-view systems;135 12.4.4;4.4 Scatter-based systems;136 12.4.5;4.5 Coherent X-ray scatter;138 12.5;5 Conclusion;142 13;Chapter 7 CT Technologies;146 13.1;1 Introduction;146 13.2;2 Features of X-ray CT Imaging;146 13.3;3 Principles of CT Imaging;148 13.3.1;3.1 Single-slice CT;148 13.3.2;3.2 Multislice CT;152 13.3.3;3.3 Dual-energy CT;153 13.4;4 CT Scanner Operation;155 13.5;5 CT Scanner Design Considerations;159 14;Chapter 8 Analysis and Detection of Explosives by Mass Spectrometry;162 14.1;1 Introduction;162 14.2;2 Trace Analysis of Explosives;165 14.2.1;2.1 Analysis of explosives by GC/MS;165 14.2.2;2.2 Analysis of explosives by LC/MS;166 14.3;3 Detecti
on of Hidden Explosives;179 14.4;4 Conclusions;183 15;Chapter 9 Advances in Ion Mobility Spectrometry of Explosives;186 15.1;1 Introduction;186 15.2;2 Sampling, Portals, and Inlets;187 15.3;3 Ion Formation and Ion Sources;193 15.3.1;3.1 Gas phase ionization reactions;193 15.3.2;3.2 Ion sources;196 15.4;4 Drift Tubes and Analyzer Development;201 15.5;5 Field Asymmetric IMS and Differential Mobility Spectrometry;203 15.6;6 Pre-Separation with IMS;207 15.7;7 Calibrations and Vapor Sources;209 15.8;8 Applications of IMS for Explosives Determinations;210 15.9;9 Future;213 16;Chapter 10 Detection of Explosives Using Amplified Fluorescent Polymers;218 16.1;1 Introduction to Conjugated Polymers;218 16.2;2 Amplified Fluorescent Conjugated Polymers as Sensors;219 16.3;3 Electron Transfer Fluorescence Quenching;221 16.4;4 Polymer Design Principles for Solid-State Sensors;223 16.4.1;4.1 Thin-film conjugated polymer sensors and aggregation;223 16.4.2;4.2 Other important design parameters for sensitivity and selectivity polymer 1 as a model;225 16.5;5 Ultra-trace TNT Detection with Operable Devices;228 16.6;6 Future Research Directions:Selected Examples;231 16.6.1;6.1 Future device improvements:chromatographic effects;231 16.6.2;6.2 Future material and transduction improvements lasing sensors;233 16.7;7 Conclusion;235 17;Chapter 11 Post-Blast Detection Issues;238 17.1;1 Objectives;238 17.2;2 Controlling the Aftermath;239 17.2.1;2.1 Questions from the media and government leaders;239 17.2.2;2.2 Scene control;239 17.2.3;2.3 Zoning;240 17.3;3 Initial Scene Examination;241 17.3.1;3.1 Map the scene;241 17.3.2;3.2 Was it a bomb?;241 17.3.3;3.3 The right question(s);241 17.3.4;3.4 Damage assessment;242 17.3.5;3.5 Debris collection;243 17.3.6;3.6 Explosives residues;243 17.3.7;3.7 Aircraft;244 17.3.8;3.8 Quality assurance;245 17.3.9;3.9 Bomb scenes and mental stress;245 17.4;4 Laboratory Examinations;246 17.4.1;4.1 Work streams;246 17.4.2;4.2 Functions;246 17.4.3;4.3 Laboratory safety;24
6 17.4.4;4.4 Receipt;247 17.4.5;4.5 Receipt of items for trace analysis;247 17.4.6;4.6 Trace analysis;248 17.4.7;4.7 Storage and disposal;253 17.5;5 Facsimiles and Tests;253 17.6;6 Prediction of Explosive Effects;254 17.7;7 Summary;256 18;Chapter 12 Explosives and Dangerous Chemicals: Constitutional Aspects of Search and Seizure;260 18.1;1 Introduction;261 18.2;2 The Fourth Amendment;261 18.2.1;2.1 Elements of Fourth Amendment;262 18.3;3 The Bill of Rights;266 18.4;4 The Fourteenth Amendment;266 18.5;5 The Law on Search and Seizure;266 18.5.1;5.1 Background: Fourth Amendment jurisprudence;266 18.5.2;5.2 Evidentiary search and seizure;267 18.5.3;5.3 Search and seizure exceptions;270 18.5.4;5.4 Remedies;276 18.6;6 Surveillance Technology;277 18.6.1;6.1 New surveillance technology;277 18.6.2;6.2 Tracking;278 18.6.3;6.3 Telephonic wiretap;278 18.6.4;6.4 Internet software;279 18.6.5;6.5 Data mining;279 18.7;7 Terrorism;280 18.7.1;7.1 Explosives;280 18.8;8 Technical Security Administration Administrative Searches and Seizures;284 18.8.1;8.1 Transport security;284 18.8.2;8.2 Explosives detection;285 18.8.3;8.3 Passenger profiling;286 18.9;9 USA Patriot Act;287 18.9.1;9.1 Creation;287 18.9.2;9.2 Conflicts between Patriot Act and civil rights;289 18.9.3;9.3 Discussion;289 18.9.4;9.4 Application;290 18.10;10 Conclusion;290 19;Index;298

EAN: 9780080923147
Untertitel: 211:eBook ePub. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Elsevier Science
Erscheinungsdatum: Juli 2011
Seitenanzahl: 302 Seiten
Format: epub eBook
Kopierschutz: Adobe DRM
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