Computer Modelling in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

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Juni 2004



This textbook is about quasi-realistic models in atmospheric and oceanic sciences. Understanding the basis and limitations of these models is important since far reaching decisions about the environment are based on these models. It is novel in that it goes beyond a technical discussion of these quasi-realistic models and emphasizes their role and utility in generating new useful knowledge about the system. The book is written in a generally understandable way, with technical details relegated to a set of comprehensive appendices. The line of reasoning is illustrated by numerous examples, from both applied and fundamental research. It is a source of information for graduate students and scientists alike working in the field of environmental sciences.


1 Introduction.- 2 Computer Models.- 3 Models and Data.- 4 The Dynamics of Tides and Climate.- 5 Modeling in Applied Environmental Sciences - Forecasting, Analysis and Scenarios.- 6 Modeling in Fundamental Environmental Sciences - Simulation and Hypothesis Testing.- 7 Issues and Conclusions.- Appendices.- A Fluid Dynamics.- A.1 The Balance Equations.- A.1.1 Mass Balances.- A.1.2 Momentum Balance.- A.1.3 Energy Balance.- A.2 Thermodynamic Specification.- A.3 The Phenomenological Flux Laws.- A.4 Boundary Conditions.- A.5 A Closer Look at the Balance Equations.- A.5.1 Cloud Formation.- A.5.2 Radiation.- A.5.3 Photochemical Reactions.- A.6 Reynolds Decomposition.- A.7 Parameterization of Interior Fluxes.- A.7.1 Eddy Diffusivities.- A.7.2 Eddy Viscosities.- A.8 Parameterization of Boundary Layer Fluxes.- A.8.1 The Constant Flux Layer.- A.8.2 The Planetary Boundary Layer.- A.9 Approximations.- A.9.1 Anelastic Approximation.- A.9.2 Shallow Water Approximation.- A.10 Representations.- A.10.1 Vertical Coordinates.- A.10.2 Decoupling.- B Numerics.- B.1 Discretization.- B.2 Partial Differential Equations.- B.2.1 Elliptic Problems.- B.2.2 Parabolic Problems.- B.2.3 Hyperbolic Problems.- B.3 Staggered Grids.- B.4 Spectral Models.- B.5 Finite Element Models.- C Statistical Analysis.- C.1 Random Variables and Processes.- C.1.1 Probability Function.- C.1.2 Bivariate Random Variables.- C.1.3 Random Processes.- C.2 Characteristic Parameters.- C.2.1 Expectation Values.- C.2.2 Empirical Orthogonal Functions.- C.2.3 Decomposition of Variance.- C.2.4 Skill Scores.- C.3 Inference.- C.3.1 Basic Aspects of Estimation.- C.3.2 Estimation of Auto-covariance Functions.- C.3.3 Estimation of Spectra.- C.3.4 Estimation of EOFs.- C.3.5 Hypothesis Testing.- D Data Assimilation.- D.1 Estimation.- D.2 Filtering.- D.2.1 Kalman Filter.- D.2.2 Optimal or Statistical Interpolation.- D.2.3 Nudging.- D.2.4 Blending and Direct Insertion.- D.2.5 Minimization.- D.3 Smoothing.- D.3.1 Adjoint Method.- D.3.2 Inverse Method.- D.3.3 Parameter Estimation.- References.



Prof. Dr. Hans von Storch ist Direktor des Instituts für Küstenforschung, GKSS, Geesthacht und lehrt am Institut für Meteorologie der Universität Hamburg.


From the reviews:
"Peter Müller and Hans Von Storch present ... a collection of concepts and limitations for simulating atmospheric and oceanic processes. ... Most statements given in the book are explained and carefully supported by selected examples. ... The numerous examples and applications make the book remarkably demonstrative and easy to read. ... It is aimed at graduates students and scientists in the field of environmental sciences. I completely agree to this suggestion. They will certainly benefit from this book." (R. Scheirer, Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Vol. 15 (6), 2006)
EAN: 9783540203537
ISBN: 3540203532
Untertitel: Building Knowledge. 2004. Auflage. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Springer
Erscheinungsdatum: Juni 2004
Seitenanzahl: 324 Seiten
Format: gebunden
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