xUnit Test Patterns
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BeschreibungAutomated testing is a cornerstone of agile development. An effective testing strategy will deliver new functionality more aggressively, accelerate user feedback, and improve quality. However, for many developers, creating effective automated tests is a unique and unfamiliar challenge. xUnit Test Patterns is the definitive guide to writing automated tests using xUnit, the most popular unit testing framework in use today. Agile coach and test automation expert Gerard Meszaros describes 68 proven patterns for making tests easier to write, understand, and maintain. He then shows you how to make them more robust and repeatable--and far more cost-effective. Loaded with information, this book feels like three books in one. The first part is a detailed tutorial on test automation that covers everything from test strategy to in-depth test coding. The second part, a catalog of 18 frequently encountered test smells, provides trouble-shooting guidelines to help you determine the root cause of problems and the most applicable patterns. The third part contains detailed descriptions of each pattern, including refactoring instructions illustrated by extensive code samples in multiple programming languages. Topics covered include Writing better tests--and writing them faster The four phases of automated tests: fixture setup, exercising the system under test, result verification, and fixture teardown Improving test coverage by isolating software from its environment using Test Stubs and Mock Objects Designing software for greater testability Using test smells (including code smells, behavior smells, and project smells) to spot problems and know when and how to eliminate them Refactoring tests for greater simplicity, robustness, and execution speed This book will benefit developers, managers, and testers working with any agile or conventional development process, whether doing test-driven development or writing the tests last. While the patterns and smells are especially applicable to all members of the xUnit family, they also apply to next-generation behavior-driven development frameworks such as RSpec and JBehave and to other kinds of test automation tools, including recorded test tools and data-driven test tools such as Fit and FitNesse. Visual Summary of the Pattern Language Foreword Preface Acknowledgments Introduction Refactoring a Test PART I: The Narratives Chapter 1 A Brief Tour Chapter 2 Test Smells Chapter 3 Goals of Test Automation Chapter 4 Philosophy of Test Automation Chapter 5 Principles of Test Automation Chapter 6 Test Automation Strategy Chapter 7 xUnit Basics Chapter 8 Transient Fixture Management Chapter 9 Persistent Fixture Management Chapter 10 Result Verification Chapter 11 Using Test Doubles Chapter 12 Organizing Our Tests Chapter 13 Testing with Databases Chapter 14 A Roadmap to Effective Test Automation PART II: The Test Smells Chapter 15 Code Smells Chapter 16 Behavior Smells Chapter 17 Project Smells PART III: The Patterns Chapter 18 Test Strategy Patterns Chapter 19 xUnit Basics Patterns Chapter 20 Fixture Setup Patterns Chapter 21 Result Verification Patterns Chapter 22 Fixture Teardown Patterns Chapter 23 Test Double Patterns Chapter 24 Test Organization Patterns Chapter 25 Database Patterns Chapter 26 Design-for-Testability Patterns Chapter 27 Value Patterns PART IV: Appendixes Appendix A Test Refactorings Appendix B xUnit Terminology Appendix C xUnit Family Members Appendix D Tools Appendix E Goals and Principles Appendix F Smells, Aliases, and Causes Appendix G Patterns, Aliases, and Variations Glossary References Index
InhaltsverzeichnisVisual Summary of the Pattern Language xviiForeword xixPreface xxiAcknowledgments xxviIntroduction xxixRefactoring a Test xlvPART I: The Narratives 1 Chapter 1 A Brief Tour 3 About This Chapter 3 The Simplest Test Automation Strategy That Could Possibly Work 3 Development Process 4 Customer Tests 5 Unit Tests 6 Design for Testability 7 Test Organization 7 What's Next? 8 Chapter 2 Test Smells 9 About This Chapter 9 An Introduction to Test Smells 9 What's a Test Smell? 10 Kinds of Test Smells 10 What to Do about Smells? 11 A Catalog of Smells 12 The Project Smells 12 The Behavior Smells 13 The Code Smells 16 What's Next? 17 Chapter 3 Goals of Test Automation 19 About This Chapter 19 Why Test? 19 Economics of Test Automation 20 Goals of Test Automation 21 Tests Should Help Us Improve Quality 22 Tests Should Help Us Understand the SUT 23 Tests Should Reduce (and Not Introduce) Risk 23 Tests Should Be Easy to Run 25 Tests Should Be Easy to Write and Maintain 27 Tests Should Require Minimal Maintenance as the System Evolves Around Them 29 What's Next? 29 Chapter 4 Philosophy of Test Automation 31 About This Chapter 31 Why Is Philosophy Important? 31 Some Philosophical Differences 32 Test First or Last? 32 Tests or Examples? 33 Test-by-Test or Test All-at-Once? 33 Outside-In or Inside-Out? 34 State or Behavior Verification? 36 Fixture Design Upfront or Test-by-Test? 36 When Philosophies Differ 37 My Philosophy 37 What's Next? 37 Chapter 5 Principles of Test Automation 39 About This Chapter 39 The Principles 39 What's Next? 48 Chapter 6 Test Automation Strategy 49 About This Chapter 49 What's Strategic? 49 Which Kinds of Tests Should We Automate? 50 Per-Functionality Tests 50 Cross-Functional Tests 52 Which Tools Do We Use to Automate Which Tests? 53 Test Automation Ways and Means 54 Introducing xUnit 56 The xUnit Sweet Spot 58 Which Test Fixture Strategy Do We Use? 58 What Is a Fixture? 59 Major Fixture Strategies 60 Transient Fresh Fixtures 61 Persistent Fresh Fixtures 62 Shared Fixture Strategies 63 How Do We Ensure Testability? 65 Test Last--At Your Peril 65 Design for Testability--Upfront 65 Test-Driven Testability 66 Control Points and Observation Points 66 Interaction Styles and Testability Patterns 67 Divide and Test 71 What's Next? 73 Chapter 7 xUnit Basics 75 About This Chapter 75 An Introduction to xUnit 75 Common Features 76 The Bare Minimum 76 Defining Tests 76 What's a Fixture? 78 Defining Suites of Tests 78 Running Tests 79 Test Results 79 Under the xUnit Covers 81 Test Commands 82 Test Suite Objects 82 xUnit in the Procedural World 82 What's Next? 83 Chapter 8 Transient Fixture Management 85 About This Chapter 85 Test Fixture Terminology 86 What Is a Fixture? 86 What Is a Fresh Fixture? 87 What Is a Transient Fresh Fixture? 87 Building Fresh Fixtures 88 In-line Fixture Setup 88 Delegated Fixture Setup 89 Implicit Fixture Setup 91 Hybrid Fixture Setup 93 Tearing Down Transient Fresh Fixtures 93 What's Next? 94 Chapter 9 Persistent Fixture Management 95 About This Chapter 95 Managing Persistent Fresh Fixtures 95 What Makes Fixtures Persistent? 95 Issues Caused by Persistent Fresh Fixtures 96 Tearing Down Persistent Fresh Fixtures 97 Avoiding the Need for Teardown 100 Dealing with Slow Tests 102 Managing Shared Fixtures 103 Accessing Shared Fixtures 103 Triggering Shared Fixture Construction 104 What's Next? 106 Chapter 10 Result Verification 107 About This Chapter 107 Making Tests Self-Checking 107 Verify State or Behavior? 108 State Verification 109 Using Built-in Assertions 110 Delta Assertions 111 External Result Verification 111 Verifying Behavior 112 Procedural Behavior Verification 113 Expected Behavior Specification 113 Reducing Test Code Duplication 114 Expected Objects 115 Custom Assertions 116 Outcome-Describing Verification Method 117 Parameterized and Data-Driven Tests 118 Avoiding Conditional Test Logic 119 Eliminating "if" Statements 120 Eliminating Loops 121 Other Techniques 121 Working Backward, Outside-In 121 Using Test-Driven Development to Write Test Utility Methods 122 Where to Put Reusable Verification Logic? 122 What's Next? 123 Chapter 11 Using Test Doubles 125 About This Chapter 125 What Are Indirect Inputs and Outputs? 125 Why Do We Care about Indirect Inputs? 126 Why Do We Care about Indirect Outputs? 126 How Do We Control Indirect Inputs? 128 How Do We Verify Indirect Outputs? 130 Testing with Doubles 133 Types of Test Doubles 133 Providing the Test Double 140 Configuring the Test Double 141 Installing the Test Double 143 Other Uses of Test Doubles 148 Endoscopic Testing 149 Need-Driven Development 149 Speeding Up Fixture Setup 149 Speeding Up Test Execution 150 Other Considerations 150 What's Next? 151 Chapter 12 Organizing Our Tests 153 About This Chapter 153 Basic xUnit Mechanisms 153 Right-Sizing Test Methods 154 Test Methods and Testcase Classes 155 Testcase Class per Class 155 Testcase Class per Feature 156 Testcase Class per Fixture 156 Choosing a Test Method Organization Strategy 158 Test Naming Conventions 158 Organizing Test Suites 160 Running Groups of Tests 160 Running a Single Test 161 Test Code Reuse 162 Test Utility Method Locations 163 TestCase Inheritance and Reuse 163 Test File Organization 164 Built-in Self-Test 164 Test Packages 164 Test Dependencies 165 What's Next? 165 Chapter 13 Testing with Databases 167 About This Chapter 167 Testing with Databases 167 Why Test with Databases? 168 Issues with Databases 168 Testing without Databases 169 Testing the Database 171 Testing Stored Procedures 172 Testing the Data Access Layer 172 Ensuring Developer Independence 173 Testing with Databases (Again!) 173 What's Next? 174 Chapter 14 A Roadmap to Effective Test Automation 175 About This Chapter 175 Test Automation Difficulty 175 Roadmap to Highly Maintainable Automated Tests 176 Exercise the Happy Path Code 177 Verify Direct Outputs of the Happy Path 178 Verify Alternative Paths 178 Verify Indirect Output Behavior 179 Optimize Test Execution and Maintenance 180 What's Next? 181 PART II: The Test Smells 183 Chapter 15 Code Smells 185 Obscure Test 186 Conditional Test Logic 200 Hard-to-Test Code 209 Test Code Duplication 213 Test Logic in Production 217 Chapter 16 Behavior Smells 223 Assertion Roulette 224 Erratic Test 228 Fragile Test 239 Frequent Debugging 248 Manual Intervention 250 Slow Tests 253 Chapter 17 Project Smells 259 Buggy Tests 260 Developers Not Writing Tests 263 High Test Maintenance Cost 265 Production Bugs 268 PART III: The Patterns 275 Chapter 18 Test Strategy Patterns 277 Recorded Test 278 Scripted Test 285 Data-Driven Test 288 Test Automation Framework 298 Minimal Fixture 302 Standard Fixture 305 Fresh Fixture 311 Shared Fixture 317 Back Door Manipulation 327 Layer Test 337 Chapter 19 xUnit Basics Patterns 347 Test Method 348 Four-Phase Test 358 Assertion Method 362 Assertion Message 370 Testcase Class 373 Test Runner 377 Testcase Object 382 Test Suite Object 387 Test Discovery 393 Test Enumeration 399 Test Selection 403 Chapter 20 Fixture Setup Patterns 407 In-line Setup 408 Delegated Setup 411 Creation Method 415 Implicit Setup 424 Prebuilt Fixture 429 Lazy Setup 435 Suite Fixture Setup 441 Setup Decorator 447 Chained Tests 454 Chapter 21 Result Verification Patterns 461 State Verification 462 Behavior Verification 468 Custom Assertion 474 Delta Assertion 485 Guard Assertion 490 Unfinished Test Assertion 494 Chapter 22 Fixture Teardown Patterns 499 Garbage-Collected Teardown 500 Automated Teardown 503 In-line Teardown 509 Implicit Teardown 516 Chapter 23 Test Double Patterns 521 Test Double 522 Test Stub 529 Test Spy 538 Mock Object 544 Fake Object 551 Configurable Test Double 558 Hard-Coded Test Double 568 Test-Specific Subclass 579 Chapter 24 Test Organization Patterns 591 Named Test Suite 592 Test Utility Method 599 Parameterized Test 607 Testcase Class per Class 617 Testcase Class per Feature 624 Testcase Class per Fixture 631 Testcase Superclass 638 Test Helper 643 Chapter 25 Database Patterns 649 Database Sandbox 650 Stored Procedure Test 654 Table Truncation Teardown 661 Transaction Rollback Teardown 668 Chapter 26 Design-for-Testability Patterns 677 Dependency Injection 678 Dependency Lookup 686 Humble Object 695 Test Hook 709 Chapter 27 Value Patterns 713 Literal Value 714 Derived Value 718 Generated Value 723 Dummy Object 728 PART IV: Appendixes 733 Appendix A Test Refactorings 735 Appendix B xUnit Terminology 741 Appendix C xUnit Family Members 747 Appendix D Tools 753 Appendix E Goals and Principles 757 Appendix F Smells, Aliases, and Causes 761 Appendix G Patterns, Aliases, and Variations 767 Glossary 785References 819Index 835
PortraitGerard Meszaros is Chief Scientist and Senior Consultant at ClearStream Consulting, a Calgary-based consultancy specializing in agile development. He has more than a decade of experience with automated unit testing frameworks and is a leading expert in test automation patterns, refactoring of software and tests, and design for testability.
Untertitel: Refactoring Test Code. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Addison Wesley
Erscheinungsdatum: Juni 2007