The Biology of Taurine

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November 1987



I was pleased and at the same time filled with some misgivings when Professors Alberto Giotti end Ryan Huxtable asked me to introduce this book. The book is the outcome of the Symposium held in Firenze-San Miniato (PI), October 6-9, 1986. The symposium was entitled "Sulfur Amino Acids, Peptides and Related Compounds" and was the 7th international symposium on taurine ßnd assooiated substances. It is always difficult to introduce, with the right brevity end emphasis, a topic which has been studied in depth by numerous experte. Nevertheless, I shall do my best to give a historical perspeotive of the subjects of the meeting which I consider to be very important for the frontiers of researoh on taurine. ~he following topios have also beoome coherent areas of study during the development of researoh on taurine: metabolism, nutrition, neurochemistry, cardiovasoular regulation. Although taurine was isolated in 1821 by ~iedman and Gmel1n, its only biochemioal role known at the time was the synthesis of bile saIte in mammalian tissue. There has been an inoreasing interest in the biologioal action of taurine from metabolio aspects to other biologioal aspects (nutrition, development, eto.). In 1975 it was first demonstrated that taurine deprivation produoed retinal degeneration in cats; more reoent studies showed that a taurine-free diet or the administration of taurine transport inhibitors caused retinal degeneration in other mammlas. More reoent studies have pointed out the role of taurine in development, and the first part of this book is dedicated to these topios.


Section I: Taurine and Cardiovascular Pharmacology.- Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics of Taurine and Related Compounds.- Section II. Biochemistry, Nutrition and Development.- Introduction: Biochemistry, Nutrition and Development.- The Stabilizing Protein, Protein-A, of Cysteine Dioxygenase.- The Oxidation of Hypotaurine to Taurine: Bis-Aminoethyl-?-Disulfone, A Metabolic Intermediate in Mammalian Tissue.- Renal Taurine Transport-Recent Developments.- Taurine Conjugation of Bile Acids Protects Human Cells in Culture.- Development of Biosynthesizing and Uptake Systems for Taurine in Cerebral Cortical Neurons in Primary Culture: Analysis of Possible Factors Involved in Perinatal Decline of Cerebral Taurine.- Taurine Efflux from Brain Slices: Potassium-Evoked Release is Greater from Immature than Mature Brain Tissue.- Taurine and Photoreceptor Structure: Biochemical and Electrophysiological Studies.- Taurine Availability and Function in Neurogenetic Retinopathies.- Nutritional Taurine Deficiency and Feline Pregnancy and Outcome.- Abnormal Visual Acuity and Retinal Morphology in Rhesus Monkeys Fed a Taurine-Free Diet During the First Three Postnatal Months.- Taurine Concentrations in Human Heart - A Retrospective Analysis.- The Development of Heart and Brain Function in Low-Birth-Weight Infants Fed with Taurine-Supplemented Formula.- Section III. Pharmacology of Excitable Tissue.- Potentiation of Myocardial Ischemic Injury by Drug-Induced Taurine Depletion.- Inotropic Activity of Orthanilic and L-Cysteic Acid on Isolated Guinea-Pig Ventricular Strips.- Calcium Overload-Induced Myocardial Damage Caused by Isoproterenol and by Adriamycin: Possible Role of Taurine in its Prevention.- An Analysis of the Effects of Taurine on Cellular and Extracellular Calcium Mobilization in Rabbit Ear Artery.- Suppression of Bronchial Response to Platelet Activating Factor Following Taurine Administration.- Neural Regulation of Taurine Transport in Skeletal Muscle.- Effect of Taurine on Chloride Conductance and Excitability of Rat Skeletal Muscle Fibers.- Insulin-Like Activity of Taurine.- Taurine Inhibits Wet-Dog Shakes and Hippocampal Seizures Induced by Opioid Peptides in Rats.- Possible Involvement of Brain Calcium Metabolism in the Action of Taurine in Mammalian Thermoregulation.- Section IV: Neurochemistry.- A Taurine Receptor Model: Taurine-Sensitive Olfactory Cells in the Lobster.- Taurine System in the Normal and Ischemic Rat Hippocampus.- Immunocytochemical Demonstration of Taurine.- Uptake, Localization and Release of Taurine in the Rat Basal Ganglia.- Basal Concentration and Evoked Changes of Extracellular Taurine in the Rat Hippocampus in Vivo.- A Model of the Compartmentalization of Taurine in Rat Hypothalamic Neuronal and Glial Cell Particles.- Neurochemical Characterization of Excitatory Amino Acid Receptors in Hippocampus.- The Effect of Taurine on Excitatory Receptor Binding in Rat Hippocampal Membranes.- Taurine Deficiency in the Rat and Cat: Effects on Neurotoxic and Biochemical Actions of Kainate.- Further Observation on the Interaction of Taurine and Calmodulin on the Central Adrenergic Neuron.- Interactions of Taurine and Dopamine in the Striatum.- Effects of Acidic Dipeptides on Aminoacidergic Neurotransmission in the Brain.- Section V: Calcium-Taurine Modulatory Mechanism.- From Heart to Hypothesis: A Mechanism for the Calcium Modulatory Actions of Taurine.- Participants.- Abbreviations.
EAN: 9780306426650
ISBN: 030642665X
Untertitel: Methods and Mechanisms. 1987. Auflage. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Springer
Erscheinungsdatum: November 1987
Seitenanzahl: 424 Seiten
Format: gebunden
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