Monitoring and surveillance of genetically modified higher plants
BeschreibungThere is an urgent need for guidelines for monitoring of genetically modified higher plants, GMHP. Biotech crops are now cultivated in large scale in North America and elsewhere. In Europe, new genetically modified (GM) products will probably be placed on the market soon and made available of any negative ef for cultivation in the field. Monitoring and surveillance programs for detection fects to the environment must be designed and ready when these crops are released. This also corre sponds to the current intentions made by the European Commission to include monitoring in current biotechnology regulation. Monitoring of changes in biological systems is different from other types of environmental monitoring, such as monitoring fate of chemical pollutants, by focusing primarily on organism survival and organism interactions instead of physical and chemical parameters. The difficulties involved in monitoring biological systems are great, due to the complex interactions between organisms and the variability in responses. Problems concerning spatial and temporal pa rameter variation increase the difficulties, but may be remedied somewhat by the use of "baselines". These and many other questions are discussed in the present book with the aim of presenting practi cal solutions to the needs of GMHP monitoring. A project was initiated in 1998 to produce a book with guidelines for monitoring and surveillance of GMHP. In two earlier books, compilations of current test methods for risk assessment of GMHP were presented (Kjellsson & Simonsen 1994, Kjellsson et al. 1997).
- 1.1 How to use this book.
- 1.2 Biotechnology and new GM crops placed on the market.
- 1.3 Risk assessment, monitoring and the EU directives.- 2 Environmental concerns and concepts.
- 2.1 The risk of GMHP invasion.
- 2.2 Ecological effects of GMHP.
- 2.3 Concepts and definitions.
- 2.4 List of relevant links for information on monitoring of GMHP.- 3 Monitoring and surveillance of GMHP dispersal and effects.
- 3.1 Objectives for monitoring programs.
- 3.2 Scheme for the process of monitoring GMHP.
- 3.3 Approaches to monitoring.
- 3.3.1 Quality of monitoring programs.
- 3.3.2 GMHP monitoring experience.
- 3.3.3 Monitoring methods for other environmental purposes.
- 3.4 Factors that may make a community invasible.
- 3.5 Suggestions for a tripartite monitoring program.
- 3.5.1 Dispersal subprogram.
- 3.5.2 Effects subprogram.
- 3.5.3 Surveillance subprogram.
- 3.5.4 Problems related to effect monitoring.
- 3.6 Data analysis and evaluation of results.
- 3.7 Extent of monitoring.
- 3.8 Reassessment of established monitoring procedures.- 4 Perspectives of habitat selection.
- 4.1 Background for habitat selection in Denmark and EU.
- 4.2 Important factors for selection of exposed areas.
- 4.3 Background for habitat selection in relation to GMHP-monitoring.
- 4.3.1 Case-by-case selection.
- 4.4 Which habitats should be monitored?.
- 4.4.1 Why select disturbed and grass dominated habitats?.
- 4.4.2 Danish disturbed habitats dominated by grasses.
- 4.5 General changes affecting plants and other organisms.
- 4.6 Baseline definition.- 5 Agricultural use and effects of GMHP.
- 5.1 Detection of adverse effects in cultivated fields.
- 5.2 Effects and monitoring of GM crops used in large-scale farming.- 6 Dispersal of GMHP and transgenes.
- 6.1 Detection of GMHP dispersal and invasion.
- 6.2 Detection of hybridisation and transgene dispersal.- 7 Effect identification and detection.
- 7.1 Effect types, identification and assessment.
- 7.2 Assessment of effects on vegetation, ecosystem structure and function.
- 7.3 Detection of effects on soil organisms.
- 7.3.1 Microbiological activity.
- 7.3.2 Soil animals.
- 7.4 Detection of effects on aboveground organisms.
- 7.4.1 Detection of effects on plant species.
- 7.4.2 Detection of effects on insects.
- 7.4.3 Detection of effects on birds and mammals.
- 7.5 Sampling designs and data analysis methods.- 8 Data analysis and evaluation.
- 8.1 Statistical methods and tools.
- 8.2 Use of modelling to assist monitoring.
- 8.3 Evaluation, information management and policy making.- 9 Conclusions and recommendations.- 10 References.- 11 Subject index.
Untertitel: Guidelines for procedures and analysis of environmental effects. 2001. Auflage. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
Erscheinungsdatum: Juli 2001
Seitenanzahl: 128 Seiten