Modelling Critical and Catastrophic Phenomena in Geoscience
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BeschreibungGeophysics, or physics modelling of geological phenomena, is as old and as - tablished as geoscience itself. The statistical physics modelling of various g- physical phenomena, earthquake in particular, is comparatively recent. This bookintendstocovertheserecentdevelopmentsinmodellingvariousgeoph- ical phenomena, including the imposing classic phenomenon of earthquakes, employing various statistical physical ideas and techniques. This ?rst book on statistical physics modelling of geophysical phenomena contains extensive - viewsbyalmostalltheleadingexpertsinthe?eldandshouldbewidelyuseful to the graduate students and researchers in geoscience and statistical physics. It grew out of the lecture notes from a workshop on Models of Earthquakes: Physics Approaches , held in Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, - der the auspices of its Centre for Applied Mathematics and Computational Science in December 2005. The book is divided in four parts. In the ?rst part, tutorial materials are introduced. Chakrabarti introduces the fracture nucleation processes, their (extreme) statistics in disordered solids, in ?bre bundle models and in the two fractal overlap models of earthquakes. In the next two chapters, Hemmer et al. and Kun et al. review the avalanche or quake statistics and the bre- ing dynamics in simple (mean-?eld like) ?bre bundle models and in their extended versions, respectively. Hansen and Mathiesen discuss the scale - variance properties of the random and fractured surfaces.
InhaltsverzeichnisTutorial: Introductory Material.- Statistical Physics of Fracture and Earthquake.- Rupture Processes in Fibre Bundle Models.- Extensions of Fibre Bundle Models.- Survey of Scaling Surfaces.- Physics Models of Earthquake.- Some Early Earthquake Source Models.- Geometric Models of Earthquakes.- Friction, Stick-Slip Motion and Earthquake.- Statistical Features of Earthquake Temporal Occurrence.- Spatiotemporal Correlations of Earthquakes.- Space-time Combined Correlation Between Earthquakes and a New, Self-Consistent Definition of Aftershocks.- Short-Term Prediction of Mediumand Large-Size Earthquakes Based on Markov and Extended Self-Similarity Analysis of Seismic Data.- Why Does Theoretical Physics Fail to Explain and Predict Earthquake Occurrence?.- Modelling Related Phenomena.- Aeolian Transport and Dune Formation.- Avalanches and Ripples in Sandpiles.- Dynamics of Stick-Slip: Some Universal and Not So Universal Features.- Search for Precursors in Some Models of Catastrophic Failures.- Miscellaneous Short Notes.- Nonlinear Analysis of Radon Time Series Related to Earthquake.- A Thermomechanical Model of Earthquakes.- Fractal Dimension of the 2001 El Salvador Earthquake Time Series.- Approach in Time to Breakdown in the RRTN Model.- Critical Behaviour of Mixed Fibres with Uniform Distribution.
Untertitel: A Statistical Physics Approach. 'Lecture Notes in Physics'. 2006. Auflage. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
Erscheinungsdatum: September 2006
Seitenanzahl: 552 Seiten