Landscape Function and Disturbance in Arctic Tundra

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September 2012



Following the discovery of large petroleum reserves in northern Alaska, the US Department of Energy implemented an integrated field and modeling study to help define potential impacts of energy-related disturbances on tundra ecosystems. This volume presents the major findings from this study, ranging from ecosystem physiology and biogeochemistry to landscape models that quantify the impact of road-building. An important resource for researchers and students interested in arctic ecology, as well as for environmental managers concerned with practical issues of disturbances.


I Introduction.- 1 Ecosystem Response, Resistance, Resilience, and Recovery in Arctic Landscapes: Introduction.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 NRC Committee Report.- 1.3 The R4D Program.- 1.3.1 Objectives and Conceptual Framework.- 1.3.2 Program Implementation.- 1.3.3 Landscape Function.- 1.4 Summary.- References.- 2 Integrated Ecosystem Research in Northern Alaska, 1947 1994.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Early Days at NARL.- 2.3 The U. S. Tundra Biome Program.- 2.4 The Meade River RATE Program.- 2.5 Eagle Creek and Eagle Summit.- 2.6 The Arctic LIER Program at Toolik Lake.- 2.7 Other Studies In Alaska and Elsewhere.- 2.8 Summary and Prospects.- References.- 3 Disturbance and Recovery of Arctic Alaskan Vegetation.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Disturbance and Recovery.- 3.3 Typical Disturbance and Recovery Patterns.- 3.3.1 Small Disturbed Patches.- 3.3.2 Contaminants.- Hydrocarbon Spills.- Seawater and Reserve-Pit Spills.- 3.3.3 Fire.- 3.3.4 Transportation Corridors.- Bulldozed Tundra and Related Disturbances.- Off-Road Vehicle Trails.- Summer Travel.- Winter Travel.- Permanent Roads and Pads.- Gravel Mines.- Native Species in Revegetation of Gravel Pads and Mines.- Road Dust.- Roadside Impoundments.- 3.3.5 Cumulative Impacts.- 3.4 Conclusions.- References.- 4 Terrain and Vegetation of the Imnavait Creek Watershed.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Terrain.- 4.2.1 Glacial Deposits.- 4.2.2 Retransported Hillslope Deposits.- 4.2.3 Colluvial Basin Deposits.- 4.2.4 Floodplain Deposits.- 4.3 Vegetation.- 4.3.1 Flora.- 4.3.2 Vegetation Types.- Lichen-Covered Rocks.- Dry Heath.- Exposed Sites.- Snowbeds.- Tussock Tundra.- Riparian Areas.- Mires.- Beaded Ponds.- 4.4 West-Facing Toposequence.- 4.5 Terrain Sensitivity to Disturbance.- 4.6 Conclusions.- Appendix A. List of Plants for Imnavait Creek, Alaska.- References.- 5 Vegetation Structure and Aboveground Carbon and Nutrient Pools in the Imnavait Creek Watershed.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 Description of Vegetation.- 5.3 Sampling Methods.- 5.3.1 Cover.- 5.3.2 Biomass and Nutrient Pools.- 5.4 Cover.- 5.5 Aboveground Biomass.- 5.5.1 Live Biomass.- 5.5.2 Photosynthetic Biomass.- 5.5.3 Lichen Biomass.- 5.5.4 Organic Litter.- 5.5.5 Watershed Patterns.- 5.6 Nutrient Pools.- 5.6.1 N and P in Heath Cryptogams.- 5.6.2 N and P in Communities.- 5.7 Discussion and Conclusions.- References.- II Physical Environment, Hydrology, and Transport.- 6 Energy Balance and Hydrological Processes in an Arctic Watershed.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Radiation and Thermal Regimes.- 6.2.1 Surface Energy Balance.- 6.2.2 Snow Cover and Soil Thermal Regime.- 6.3 Hydrological Processes.- 6.3.1 Snowmelt.- 6.3.2 Plot and Basin Water Balance.- 6.3.3 Runoff and Basin Discharge


"..a very important contribution to arctic ecology...The book will soon be a classic and is indispensable for everyone interested in the ecology of the Arctic tundra." Entomologia Generalis
EAN: 9783662011478
ISBN: 3662011476
Untertitel: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1996. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
Verlag: Springer
Erscheinungsdatum: September 2012
Seitenanzahl: 464 Seiten
Format: kartoniert
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