Fundamentals of Neurophysiology
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BeschreibungAgain rapid advances in the brain sciences have made it necessary, after only a few years, to issue a revised edition of this text. All the chapters have been reviewed and brought up to date, and some have been largely rewritten. The major revision has occurred in the chap ters on the autonomic nervous system and the integrative functions of the central nervous system. But in the discussion of the motor systems and other subjects as well, recent insights have necessitated certain conceptual modifications. In the description of the autonomic nervous system, the role of the intestinal innervation has been brought out more clearly than before. In addition, there is a new presentation of the physiology of smooth muscle fibers, and more attention has been paid to the postsynaptic adrenergic receptors, because of the increasing therapeutic signifi cance of the at f3 receptor concept. A substantial section on the genital reflexes in man and woman, including the extragenital changes during copulation, has also been added. The text on the integrative functions of the central nervous system has been expanded to include, for the first time, material on brain metabolism and blood flow and their dependence on the activity of the brain. Reference is also made to recent results of research on split brain and aphasic patients and on memory, as well as on the physiol ogy of sleeping and dreaming.
Inhaltsverzeichnis1 The Structure of the Nervous System..
- 1.1 The Nerve Cells.
- 1.2 Supporting and Nutritive Tissue.
- 1.3 The Nerves.
- 1.4 The Structure of the Spinal Cord.- 2 Excitation of Nerve and Muscle..
- 2.1 Resting Potential.
- 2.2 Resting Potential and Na+ Influx.
- 2.3 The Sodium Pump.
- 2.4 The Action Potential.
- 2.5 Kinetics of Excitation.
- 2.6 Electrotonus and Stimulus.
- 2.7 Propagation of the Action Potential.- 3 Synaptic Transmission..
- 3.1 The Neuromuscular Junction: Example of a Chemical Synapse.
- 3.2 The Quantal Nature of Chemical Transmission.
- 3.3 Central Excitatory Synapses.
- 3.4 Central Inhibitory Synapses.
- 3.5 The Transmitter Substances at Chemical Synapses.- 4 The Physiology of Small Groups of Neurons; Reflexes..
- 4.1 Typical Neuronal Circuits.
- 4.2 The Monosynaptic Reflex Arc.
- 4.3 Polysynaptic Motor Reflexes.- 5 Muscles.
- 5.1 Contraction of the Muscle.
- 5.2 Dependence of Force Development on Fiber Length and Velocity of Shortening.
- 5.3 Excitation-Contraction Coupling.
- 5.4 Regulation of Muscle Contraction.- 6 Motor Systems.
- 6.1 Spinal Motor Systems I: Roles of Muscle Spindles and Tendon Organs.
- 6.2 Spinal Motor Systems II: Polysynaptic Motor Reflexes; the Flexor Reflex.
- 6.3 Functional Anatomy of Supraspinal Motor Centers.
- 6.4 Reflex Control of the Posture of the Body in Space.
- 6.5 Functions of the Basal Ganglia, Cerebellum and Motor Cortex.- 7 Regulatory Functions of the Nervous System, as Exemplified by the Spinal Motor System..
- 7.1 The Stretch Reflex as a Length-Control System.
- 7.2 Static and Dynamic Properties of Control Systems.- 8 The Autonomic Nervous System..
- 8.1 Functional Anatomy of the Peripheral Autonomic Nervous System.
- 8.2 Acetylcholine, Noradrenaline and Adrenaline.
- 8.3 Smooth Muscle: Myogenic Activity and Responses to Stretching, Acetylcholine, and Adrenaline.
- 8.4 Antagonistic Effects of Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Activity on Autonomic Effectors.
- 8.5 Central Nervous Regulation: Spinal Reflex Arc, Bladder Regulation.
- 8.6 Genital Reflexes.
- 8.7 Central Nervous Regulation: Arterial Blood Pressure, Regulation of Muscle Perfusion.
- 8.8 The Hypothalamus. The Regulation of Body Temperature, Osmolality of the Extracellular Fluid, and the Endocrine Glands.
- 8.9 Integrative Functions of the Hypothalamus. Limbic System.- 9 Integrative Functions of the Central Nervous System..
- 9.1 Structure and General Physiology of the Cerebral Cortex; the Electroencephalogram.
- 9.2 Waking, Sleeping, Dreaming.
- 9.3 Consciousness and Speech: Structural and Functional Prerequisites.
- 9.4 Learning and Memory.
- 9.5 The Frontal Lobes.- 10 Suggested Readings.- 11 Answer Key.
Untertitel: 'Springer Study Edition'. Softcover reprint of the original 3rd ed. 1985. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
Erscheinungsdatum: Oktober 1985
Seitenanzahl: 360 Seiten
Übersetzer/Sprecher: Übersetzt von Marguerite A. Biedermann-Thorson