Ecosystems, Evolution, and Ultraviolet Radiation
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BeschreibungMuch has been written about the effects of increased UV radiation caused by stratospheric ozone depletion on the weather, but there has been a dearth of publications on the role of UV on ecosystems as a whole. Now that much more is known about the effects of UV radiation at the organism level, we are gaining an understanding of how this impacts on specific ecosystems. From microbial to plant ecosystems, the book examines how changes in UV radiation, caused by anthropogenic ozone depletion, as well as changes in radiation levels throughout the evolution of life on Earth, can alter species compositionand interspecies competitiveness. Two foci of the book are the evolutionary aspects of the effects of UV and also the various synergistic interactions of UV radiation with other environmental factors. Because our knowledge of UV effects on whole ecosystems is still at a relatively early stage, an important part of each chapter is an overview of future research directions and indications of where new data and knowledge are needed.
Inhaltsverzeichnis1. The Photobiological History of Earth, C. Cockell.
Introduction, UV radiation from the Archean to the Archean-Proterozoic transition, Calculation of UV radiation on early Earth, Atmospheric absorbers and effects on Archean photobiology, Biological effects of high UV radiation flux, Methods for coping with UV flux on early Earth, Photosynthesis in the Archean, Beneficial effects of high UV radiation on Archean Earth, The Archean-Proterozoic transition, UV radiation in the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic, Conclusions.
2. Physical Factors Determining Ultraviolet Radiation Flux into Ecosystems, M. Xenopoulos & D. Schindler. Transmission of solar UV through the atmosphere to the Earth's surface,Transmission of solar UVR through water.
3. Ultraviolet Radiation and Amphibians, A. Blaustein, et. al.
Introduction, Effects of UV-B in the field, Sublethal effects, Synergistic effects, Amphibian defences against UV-B radiation, DNA Repair, Ecological consequences of Ultraviolet damage to amphibians, Disturbances may exacerbate the effects of UV-B radiation, Conclusion.
4. Ultraviolet Radiation and Plant Ecosystems, T.A. Day.
Introduction, UV-B Environment of Terrestrial Plants, Ozone depletion and enhanced UV-B, Approaches to studying plant responses to UV-B, Are plants responsive to current UV-B? Are plants responsive to enhanced UV-B levels? General Plant Responses, Response Mechanisms, What traits might confer tolerance or sensitivity to UV-B? Interactions with other trophic levels, Conclusion.
5. Ultraviolet Radiation and Coral Communities, D. Gleason.
Introduction, Measurement and penetration of UV-R in reef waters, Physiological effects of UV-R on coral reef organisms, UV-R protective mechanisms in coral reef organisms, UV-R and distributional patterns of coral reef species.
6. Ultraviolet radiation and aquatic microbial ecosystems, D. Hader.
Introduction, Measurement of UV radiation in the water column, Effects of solar UV radiation on dissolved organic material,Bacterio- and picoplankton, Cyanobacteria, Phytoplankton,
Freshwater ecosystems, The Antarctic aquatic ecosystem, The Arctic aquatic ecosystem, Conclusions and Consequences.
7. Ultraviolet Radiation and the Antarctic Coastal Marine Ecosystem, M. Vernet & W. Kozlowski.
Introduction, The Antarctic Coastal Marine Environment.
8. Ultraviolet Radiation and Exobiology, C. Cockell.
Introduction, The ultraviolet history of Mars - An exercise in comparative evolutionary photobiology, The present martian UV flux - implications for human exploration and settlement, UV Radiation and extrasolar planets, The UV radiation environment of extrasolar planets, Conclusion.
Untertitel: 2001. Auflage. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
Erscheinungsdatum: Mai 2001
Seitenanzahl: 236 Seiten