Botrytis: Biology, Pathology and Control
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BeschreibungBotrytis cinerea and other Botrytis species are important pathogens of nursery plants, vegetables, ornamental, field and orchard crops and stored and transported agricultural products. Over the last 125 years, Botrytis spp. have been investigated by an increasing number of specialists in diverse fields including chemistry, biochemistry, molecular and cell biology, genetics, morphology and histology, taxonomy, host-parasite interaction, ecology and epidemiology and they have been the subject of an immense number of published studies. Considerable effort is invested in protecting the agricultural produce against Botrytis before and after harvest. The market size for anti-Botrytis products is currently estimated at US$ 15-25 million in recent years. The intensity of anti-Botrytis measures taken by farmers continued unabated throughout the last 20 years but our understanding of the processes that govern Botrytis life cycles, pathogenicity and epidemiology have become comprehensive. During the compilation of this book the aim was to create a most comprehensive treatise on the rapidly developing science ofBotrytis and to serve as a stimulus to future research for the benefit of agriculture and horticulture and all those who serve these industries; i.e. researchers and students, farm advisers and agriculture specialists.The book is the result of intensive work of 43 authors, all of whom are leading scientists in the Botrytis sciences. Each chapter describes a particular aspect of fungal biology and its impact on disease processes and host response. New technologies have arisen that when applied to long-standing problems or to test new hypotheses have been most rewarding and many of these are covered in this book. The chapters are cross linked so that readers can follow associated material to better understand the practical implications of the advances made in fundamental science. The twenty inter-connected chapters of the book are grouped according to three major themes: the fungus and its pathogenicity factors; plant reactions to infection; and epidemiology and management of important Botrytis-incited diseases. This book adopts a multidisciplinary approach to integrate the state-of-the-art knowledge in all key areas of common interest in the fungi and their plant interactions. The book includes detailed reviews of Botrytis spp. and the diseases they cause in plant systems and provides a comprehensive description of these fungal necrotrophs, including their diversity of response to the environment, their speciation and relatedness, sources of variation for evolution and molecular genetics and genomics. Aspects of Botrytis-host interactions, pathogenicity factors, the plant's reactions to infection, morphology and cellular organization, signaling, key enzymes, reactive oxygen species and oxidative processes in disease on-set, secondary metabolites as plant defense substances and the role of phytohormones in such reactions are emphasized in the book. Several innovative approaches for disease management of this group of destructive pathogens and methods of detection, epidemiological studies and chemical and biological control are also discussed.
InhaltsverzeichnisPreface.- Acknowledgements.- Contributors.- 1: Botrytis spp. and diseases they cause in agricultural systems - an introduction; Yigal Elad, Brian Williamson, Paul Tudzynski and Nafiz Delen.- 1 Introduction. 2. Geographical and ecological occurrence. 3. Variability and adaptability. 4. Quiescent, restricted and aggressive infection. 5. Molecular basis of host-parasite interactions. 6. References. 2: The Ecology of Botrytis on Plant Surfaces; Gustav Holz, Sonja Coertze and Brian Williamson.- 1. Introduction. 2. Survival. 3. Inoculum production and dispersal. 4. Growth on plant surfaces. 5. Infection pathways on diverse plant organs. 6. Conclusion. 7. References. 3: Taxonomy and Genetic Variation of Botrytis and Botryotinia; Ross E. Beever and Pauline L. Weeds.- 1. Introduction. 2. Taxonomy. 3. Botrytis cinerea. 4. Genetics of other species of Botrytis. 5. The future. 6. Acknowledgements. 7. References. 4: Approaches to Molecular Genetics and Genomics of Botrytis; Paul Tudzynski and Verena Siewers.- 1. Introduction. 2. Generation of transgenic Botrytis strains. 3. Unbiased gene cloning systems. 4. Perspectives. 5. Acknowledgements. 6. References. 5: Morphology and Cellular Organisation in Botrytis Interactions with Plants; Klaus B. Tenberge.- 1. Introduction. 2. Cytology and ultrastructure of Botrytis. 3. Imaging of infection. 4. Host response. 5. Conclusions. 6. Acknowledgements. 7. References. 6: Signalling in Botrytis cinerea; Bettina Tudzynski and Christian Schulze Gronover.- 1. Introduction. 2. Ga subunits of hetrotrimeric G proteins. 3. cAMP signalling pathway. 4. MAP kinase pathways. 5. Genes of the Ras superfamily. 6. Calcineurin/cyclophilin A signalling. 7. Putative transmembrane receptor proteins. 8. Two-component signal transduction genes in Botrytis cinerea. 9. Further protein kinase encoding geneswith unknown function. 10. Conclusion. 11. References. 7: Extracellular Enzymes and Metabolites Involved in Pathogenesis of Botrytis; Ilona Kars and Jan A.L. van Kan.- 1. Introduction. 2. Penetration of the host surface. 3. Killing of host cells. 4. Conversion of host tissue into fungal biomass. 5. Other enzymes potentially involved in pathogenesis. 6. Concluding remarks. 7. Acknowledgements. 8. References. 8: Botrytis cinerea Perturbs Redox Processes as an Attack Strategy in Plants; Gary D. Lyon, Bernard A. Goodman and Brian Williamson.- 1. Introduction. 2. Hydrogen peroxide and other AOS. 3. Low molecular mass antioxidant molecules. 4. Perturbation of free radical chemistry as a result of Botrytis infection. 5. Production of oxalic acid. 6. Dynamics of iron redox chemistry. 7. Regulation of plant enzymes. 8. Botrytis-derived enzymes. 9. Generation of lipid peroxidation products. 10. Host signalling and programmed cell death. 11. Fungus-derived metabolites. 12. Conclusion. 13. Acknowledgements. 14. References. 9: Plant Defence Compounds against Botrytis Infection; Peter van Baarlen, Laurent Legendre and Jan A.L. van Kan.- 1. Introduction. 2. Antimicrobial secondary metabolites. 3. Tolerance of Botrytis to antifungal metabolites. 4. Structural barriers and cell wall modifications. 5. Pathogenesis-related proteins. 6. Concluding remarks. 7. Acknowledgements. 8. References. 10: Phytohormones In Botrytis-Plant Interactions; Amir Sharon, Yigal Elad, Radwan Barakat and Paul Tudzynski.- 1. Introduction. 2. Biosynthesis of plant hormones by B. cinerea. 3. Effect of plant hormones on B. cinerea and on disease development. 4. Conclusions. 5. Acknowledgement. 6. References. 11: Detection, Quantification and Immunolocalisation of Botrytis species; Frances M. Dewey (Molly) and David Yohalem.- 1. Introduction. 2. Classical plating out method. 3. Immu
Untertitel: 2004. Auflage. Book. Sprache: Englisch.
Erscheinungsdatum: Oktober 2004
Seitenanzahl: 448 Seiten